| Compiled and maintained by Rolf Achilles 1673 The French explorer Louis Jolliet and
missionary Jesuit priest Jacque Marquette visits the Grand Village 1676French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle,
visits the "Portage de Checagou," aPotawatomi word meaning "wild onion," or "garlic" or "skunk grass."
Scientifically this plant is known as Allium tricoccum. Chicago is the only larger city in the world named for a food.
of the Illinois tribe near Starved Rock. The IlliEastlannois
Indians show them a shortcut back to Lake Michigan via the Illinois, Des Plaines, and Chicago rivers. Jolliet suggests the
construction of a canal to link the
Great Lakes with the Gulf of Mexico. Marquette spends the following winter camped near what is today Damen Avenue at the Chicago
1683French Jesuits may have established Fort de Checagou near what is today the city of
Chicago. This Fort may also be a myth to help
establish French dominance at a time of British claims on the area. 1696Jesuite missionary, Father Pierre Francoise Pinet establishes the Mission of the Guardian Angel. In
a mediated agreement
with the royal governor Count Frontenac, the Jesuits give up the mission in 1699. A contemporary account by J.F. Buisson de St. Cosme locates the mission on the north bank
of the Chicago River,
today between Michigan and Rush where the ancient Indian Green Bay Trail starts. Pinet is the first resident priest assigned to Chicago.
For almost eighty years there is no known mention of Chicago.
1779 Colonel Arent Schuyler De Peyster, British commandant at Michilimackinac,
today known as Mackinac Island, mentions “Eschikagou” while describing Jean Baptiste Du Sable.
1781 The city’s first tornado is recorded in French.
1782The French speaking, Caribbean born, Jean
Baptiste Pointe Du Sable and his wife Catherine, a Potawatomi, build the first trading post nearthe mouth of the Chicago River.
1792Another French fur trader, Jean La Lime,
arrives in Chicago as an agent of William Burnett of Canada. La Lime purchases du Sable's trading post in 1800; sells it to John Kinzie.
By 1800, the Potawatomi
replace the Illini in the Chicago area.
1795The Treaty of Greenville establishes the land that is today Chicago as being on US soil. 1796 Eulalia Pointe du Sable is born in October, the first recorded birth in Chicago. 1800DuSable sells his holdings along the Chicago River.
Fort Dearborn, named for
General Henry Dearborn, secretary of war under Thomas Jefferson, is erected where today the North Michigan Avenue Bridge meets
Wacker Drive. Fort Dearborn stands at a point of entry into the Louisiana Purchase. Water is taken from the Chicago River and private wells.
sell water at a rate of 10¢ to 25¢ a barrel.
1804John and Eleanor (Lytle McKillip) Kinzie
purchase land and a house from Jean Baptiste Point du Sable.Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indian Territory appoints John
Kinzie a justice of the peace. 1805Ellen Marion Kinzie is born to John and
Eleanor Kinzie. Ellen is believed to be the first Caucasian born in Chicago.
1808The American Fur Company, founded by John Jacob Astor in New York in 1808, is the first big business to be established
1810Helen Hadduck is the first child born in Fort Dearborn.
she marries John DeKoven.
1812The War of 1812 heightens tensions in
the frontier. Fort Dearborn is burned and rebuilt. With the Indian Boundary Treaty in 1816, a canal corridor from Chicago to the Illinois River is
planned. 1817Working for the American Fur Company, Jean-Baptiste Beaubien
moves from Detroit to Chicago.
1818Illinois becomes a state with boundaries
redrawn to ensure that the entire canal route is within the state.
1822Congress makes the first appropriation
granting land for the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal to replace the Chicago Portage.
1825The Erie Canal opens. 1827 Samuel Miller opens the first tavern in
Chicago, Miller House.
1828Chicago becomes part of a federal land
grant of 284,000 acres to Illinois. The land is sold to raise funds for the Illinois-Michigan Canal. 1829The Potawatomi tribe signs a treaty with the U.S. government that cedes some 5 millions acres
to the U.S.Beaubien opens Eagle Exchange Tavern on
Wolf's Point. James Kinzie and Archibald Caldwell open Wolf Tavern, Chicago’s second bar.On June 2, the commissioners of Peoria
County issue the first official ferry license in Chicago to Samuel Miller and Archibald Clybourne for the forks of the Chicago
RIver, near Wolf's Point.
1830 U.S. Government surveyors plot the proposed
Illinois & Michigan Canal with two towns, Chicago
and Ottawa.The Federal Gov. begins construction of a harbor by digging a channel
through the sandbar, called "the deep cut" in contrast to the earlier shallow cut made by the soldiers of at Fort
Dearborn in 1818.The cut was finished in 1833 at a cost of $25,000.00.
The chief engineer was Jefferson Davies, later President of the Confederacy.The Illinois and Michigan Canal Commission hires James Thompson, a surveyor
from Kaskaskia to create a plat of Chicago. Chicago is plated into 58-blocks with straight streets
a uniformly 66 feet wide (the length of a surveyor's chain) with alleys 16 feet wide bisecting each block.In the Fall, the first lots are sold in
Chicago. Land speculators follow the advice, "buy by the acre, sell by
the foot." The first Swedes settle in what becomes Swede Town, located near Wolf's Point on the Chicago River,near today's Merchandize Mart.The city's population stands at about
100. 1831Adding a frame structure to their Eagle Exchange Tavern,
Mark and Monique Beaubien open Chicago's first hotel, the Sauganash Hotel. Next to the tavern is Chicago's first drug store. Chicago has 12 houses. 1832 Michael Diversey, an immigrant from Alsace-Lorraine, arrives in Chicago.The first bridge is built across the Chicago River. Tavern
owner Samuel Miller pays for it.
In the winter, a second bridge is constructed to carry wagons across the South Branch. The bridge
for by tavern owner Charles Taylor and his brother Anson by raising subscruptions from locals. 1833August 12, Chicago is organized as a town with its southern limits at Madison Street.
November 6, the southern city limits are extended to Jackson Street.Land speculation increases.
The first Catholic parish
in Chicago is organized and commissions Augustine D. Taylor to build St. Mary Church, considered by many to be the first balloon-frame
structure in the world built from pre-sawn boards and machine made nails.Charles Butler, a New York financier and Wall Street lawyer
arrives in Chicago invests $100,000. of his family funds in Chicago real estate.The Chicago Polemical Society is founded.A hotel named Tremont House
is built on the southeast corner of Lake and Dearborn. After an uprising under Chief Black Hawk, in September, the government
commissioners call the
allied tribes of the Potawatomies, Ottawas, and Chippewas to a Treaty Council in Chicago. Five
Indians answer the call and camp all over the prairie to the north. After many days,a treaty is signed that relocates them
west of the Mississippi.William Haas and Konrad (Andrew) Sulzer erect a small brewery, Haas & Sulzer Brewery. It is an immediate success producing approximately
600 barrels (31 gallons per barrel) of ale their first year.
The first lumber shipment arrives in Chicago from Michigan
and an industry is born.October 19, the First Baptist Church of Chicago is organized. The city’s first newspaper, the Chicago Weekly Democrat, is founded by New Yorker and Jacksonian
John Calhoun after he brought type and a press from the East on a lake schooner.
1834Reverend Jeremiah Porter organizes Chicago's first Presbyterian Church. Eliza Chappell opens the village's first
public school.The Chicago Lyceum is founded.Army engineers permanently open the Chicago River to create Chicago's first harbor.Chicago's harbor receives 176 ships.The city's third bridge and first drawbridge
is built across the Chicago River at Dearborn Street.
1835Chicago’s first Court House is erected
at the northeast corner of Clark and Randolph streets.Chicago's harbor receives 250 ships.
1836Construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal begins in an Irish settlement called Canalport,
the Chicago neighborhood of Bridgeport. Chicago's oldest surviving structure, the Henry B. Clark House, 1855 S. Indiana, is built.
(In the Norwood Park neighborhood, the
Noble-Seymore-Crippen House, 5622-24 N. Newark, dates from 1833). William Ogden, brother-in-law to Charles Butler, buys Sulzer's share of Haas & Sulzer Brewery.Chicago's harbor receives 1,427 sailing
ships and 39 steamships.
1837The census counts 4,066 people. March 4, the Illinois state legislature
grants Chicago a charter and the city incorporates.Chicago buys 100 acres of Canal land for use as a city cemetery.
William B. Ogden is elected
the city’s first mayor on May 2.Chicago buys 100 acres of canal land for use as a city cemetery. The Panic of 1837 stops canal construction.
leaves many destitute, but does not bankrupt the city. The first medical school in Chicago is chartered and named after Dr. Benjamin
Rush, a physician
who signed the Declaration of Independence.Chicago boasts of having a bookstore, a theater, a newspaper, and three
debating societies.City's first candy shop opens, South Water Street near Wells. Victoria (1819-1901) becomes Queen of England. 1838 Congress had appropriates almost $200,000.00 for harbor improvements resulting in the shoreline moving east some 720 feet between
1833 and 1839. 1839 The city's first published theatre reviews appear for C.E.
Walker's The Warlock of the Glen and Mrs. Inchbald's comedy, The Midnight Hour.The city hires a night watch to look out for fires and
criminals. Wiliam Lill buys part of Haas's share of Haas & SUlzer, renaming the brewery Haas & Lill.Newberry & Dole operate a 3-story
elevator on the north side of the Chicago River.
1840The city has a population of 4,470. The first Clark Street Bridge is constructed.James Carney Brewery opens on South Water
Street.On July 10, Chicago legally executes its first criminal, John Stone. 1841Several prominent Chicagoans establish the Young Men's Association, primarily to provide the city with a subscription library. Retail workers
band together to force stores to close at 8 p.m.The first permanent Jewish settlers arrive.John Van Osdel, Chicago's first architect, designs and
builds a pontoon bridge at Wells Street.Lill & Diversey Brewery created when Michael Diversey buys out William Ogden's share of the
Brewery.First business opens near Six Corners intersection in Portage Park at Irving Park Boulevard and Milwaukee and Cicero Avenues.
1842 Construction is completed on Chicago’s first water works at the corner of Lake Street and MichiganAvenue. The water intake is located about
150 feet into Lake Michigan. Its water mains are made of cedar.Far from the city's center and outside the city's limits, the Chicago
city cemetery stretches from North Ave. to Webster, and from Clark Street to the Lake. The business center of Chicago, until about 1860, is on Clark Street,
in the first three blocks south
of the river. This business district is brought about largely by the construction of the Clark
Bridge in 1840. Washington Square, later known as Bughouse Square and home to orators of all stripes, is established.
1843The Roman Catholic Diocese of Chicago is established. Only 816 of the city's 7,580 residents are "German and Norwegians,"
and another 667 are foreigners of an "undesignated origin."The city cemetery opens.
1844Chicago has more than 10,000 inhabitants. John M. van Osdel (1811-92) opens the city’s first professional architect’s office.Grant Park is founded as Lake Park, the
city's first park.
The largest meatpacker in Chicago, Gurdon Hubbard, is slaughtering some 300-400 hogs per day.The first Catholic school opens (for boys).An all-brick German Evangelical Lutheran
church is built at the corner of Wabash and Monroe Streets.
The College Inn restaurant opens (closes 1978). Eventually it becomes
known for its signature dish, chicken à la king (yes, that one and only!), and introduces indoor ice-skating.Michael Diversey is elected to the office of Alderman in the predominately German Ward Six. 1845 Called School No.1, or Miltimore's Folly, the first permanent school is built at 12-24 Madison. Chicago passes its first blue law, closing
"tippling houses" on Sundays.Jacob Gauch's Brewery opens on Indiana Street.
1846Kehilath Anshe Ma'ariv (Congregation of
the Men of the West) is founded. St. Patrick's, the second Catholic parish, is founded.St. Paul's German Evangelical Lutheran church is built
at the corner of LaSalle and Ohio Streets. St. Xavier Academy, a school for young women, is opened by the Sisters of Mercy.Jonas Swedberg from Smaland, Sweden, opens
a grocery store on South Water Street that sellsSwedish products.St. Peter's Catholic Church is built on Washington Street between Wells and Franklin.St. Joseph's Catholic Church is built
at the corner of Chicago Ave. and Cass (Wabash) Street.
There are 177 manufacturing concerns in Chicago, employing 1,400 persons,
of the city’s population.
1847 Cyrus H. McCormick opens a factory in
Chicago and builds 500 reapers. By 1871 production is 10,000 reapers annually, increasing to 250,000 annually by 1900.The Chicago Tribune, a newspaper,
Stephen A. Douglas, known as "The Little Giant," moves to Chicago.The Chicago and Rock Island Railroad is
The American Medical Association is founded in Chicago. The Rice Theater opens on Randolph Street.
1848The population of Chicago reaches 20,243. The Potato Famine in Ireland officially begins the "Irish Diaspora."
"Revolution" fails in Germany. Franz Mayer of Munich, Germany, installs landmark stained glass windows into Cathedrals in
and Regensburg, Germany. These windows set an international style trend.The "Pioneer" locomotive arrives in Chicago.
city's first railroad, the Chicago and Galena Union Railroad, begins operating along 10 miles
of track completed to the Des Plaines
Illinois Staats-Zeitung, a German language weekly, begins to be published. Its editor is Hermann Kriege, its politics, Republican.
In 1851 it becomes a daily. The first boatload of goods arrives through the I&M Canal, followed by a flood of grain.
regulate this grain trade, the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) is created in 1848. The first telegraph is built between Chicago and New York
City. Some streets in Chicago’s business center receive their first paving, wooden planks.
The city’s first
cattle yards open at Bull’s Head, where Madison Street meets Ashland and Ogden.
Francis Adolph Valenta, a Moravian doctor,
is probably the first Czech to settle in Chicago. He owns a pharmacy. Josiah H. Reed opens Chicago’s first soda fountain. 1849The Aurora Branch Railroad is established.The first turntable pontoon swing bridge is completed.Harriet Hubbard Ayer is born June 27, 1849. She establishes
the first cosmetic company in the US, Recamier Toilet Preparations, Inc. For the last seven years of her life she is the highest paid
newspaper woman in the US with articles on beauty, health, etiquette for Joesph Pulitzer's New York World.
In March, the Des Plaines River overflows,
swelling the south branch of the Chicago River, breaking up its ice and sweeping more than 40 ships and wharves and all five of
the city's bridges are destroyed .
1850 The first opera presented in Chicago,
Bellini’s La Sonnambula, is performed in Rice Theater
(July30). The night after the first performance, the theater
burns to the ground, making the city's
first opera season the shortest in city history.
is born in Chicago. She became an opera singer kknown as "the people's prima donna".The Chicago Gas Light & Coke Company
is formed. It erects the first gas works in Chicago at a cost
of $105,000. and turns on gas for the first time on September
4th. The gas is manufactured from coal. Gas costs $3.50a thousand feet. In 1871 the price is $3.00 a thousand and remains so until 1883,
it is reduced to $1.25.
City Hall has 36 gas burners.
The census counts 5,094 Germans living in Chicago, 17%
of the city's population.
Julius Dyhrenfurth founds Chicago’s first symphony orchestra, the
Philharmonic Society, October 24.Less than a fifth of Chicago's eligible children are enrolled in public schools.Frederick Baumann (1826-1921) becomes
the first German architect to practice in Chicago. The city has 6.7 miles of planked streets, including 12,000 feet of State
has six daily, 14 weekly and four monthly newspapers.
1851Northwestern University is organized at
the Clark Street Methodist Church. The Illinois State Legislature grants the city a charter to build and operate its own water works
system.Edited by Georg Schneider, the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, a German language newspaper, becomes a daily. The Public Water Board is organized to
handle recurring cholera outbreaks.Chicago's first brick building, the Tremont House (Hotel)
is built by Ira and James Couch at the corner of Lake and Dearborn. Named after Boston's Tremont House, it
is the third hotel on the site.
The Illinois Central Railroad is chartered and is the first
U.S. railroad to receive a public land grant.
1852Old St. Patrick Church is started. It
is finished in 1856. Replacing earlier windows, the stained glass windows installed in 1912 and later are by Thomas O'Shaughnessy.Premium Mustard Mills is founded. In 1883
it becomes Plochman, named for its new oener, chemist Moritz (later, Morris) Plochman, immigrant from Wuerttemberg, Germany, who acquires the company.Regular rail traffic is established between Chicago and
Aurora.Twenty-six year old Potter Palmer, a Quaker from upstate New York, opens a small store at 137 Lake Street, the city's first commercial
strip. He caters mostly to women. He introduces fixed prices.The city's first railroad bridge crossing the river is built near Kinzie
Street.The first through train from the east enters Chicago over the Michigan Southern & Northern Indian RR.The Illinois Central builds a breakwater
in return for shoreline property. A century of land-filling operations follow. Chicago corn buyers establish the official weight of a
bushel of corn at 56 pounds.
Frank Parmelee and Company begins to provide
passengers with safe, affordable livery
transportation in omnibuses or covered wagons, operated by neatly groomed, trustworthy
and helpful drivers between
hotels and railroad stations.Chicago Tribune writers begin a jingoistic attack on the Catholics (read Irish) population
of the city.Constable James Quinn dies of injuries from two beatings. He is the first Chicago Police officer to die in the line of duty.The Northern Indiana Railroad is established
with service east of the city.
1854The Chicago & Rock Island Railroad
becomes the first line to cross the Mississippi River.Conrad Seipp enters the brewing trade.The first Polk Street Bridge is built
using the old Clark Street Bridge. Lakeview is promoted as a pleasant summer retreat away from the city's disease and heat.
1855Chicago has 675 “liquor establishments” – 625 owned by Germans and Irish, 50 by "Americans."
On March 6, physician Doctor
Levi Boone of the Know-Nothing Party becomes mayor of Chicago.In his inaugural speech he unveils his "dry" policy, including
the sale of intoxicating liquors after the first day of April, fix the city liquor license at $300. per year, and forbidding liquor sales
Sabbath day. When Chicago’s Mayor Levi Boone signed a temperance edict which forbade the drinking of beer
on Sunday as "un-American,"
the German immigrants reacted with the "Lager Bier Riots." Allan Pinkerton opens his detective agency, "The Eye
that Never Sleeps." On May 22, the Norwood Tornado strikes around 4:30 P.M., killing 3 and injuring 6. The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
starts regular service between Chicago and Quincy.Chicago & Northwestern Railway links Milwaukee with Chicago.By a series of ordinances, begining this
year, the grade level of streets was raised, about 10 feet along the river, and by varying heights in outlying areas.The first Hungarians come to Chicago and
establish the city's first private foreign-language school.The Cabinet Makers Society of Chicago is organized. The Chicago Theological Seminary is organized.The Chicago Phrenological Society is organized.
1856 The Episcopal Cathedral of St. James is built. The church
is rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1871
and over the next four decades receives very fine English stained glass
windows.The Chicago Historical Society is founded. Fort Dearborn is demolished. Nelson Morris (born Moritz
Beissinger, 1839), age 17, moves from New York to Chicago and starts his own meatpacking co. in 1859.
An iron bridge at Rush Street is built..The first wooden pavement is laid on Wells
Street.Chicago lays its first sewer.The first train runs from Chicago to Hyde Park.The Illinois Central Railroad opens its line from Chicago
to New Orleans.
1857 Guided by Rev. Arnold Damen, Holy Family Church is built.
Magnificently restored, its circular stained glass windows, made by an unknown Chicago studio, survive as the oldest locally produced
Solomon A. Smith is one of the original incorporators and the first President of the Merchant's Savings, Loan and Trust Company (later
the Continental Illinois Bank and Trust Company, eventually merging with the Bank of America). At a cost of $7,000.00 a mausoleum is
built for Ira Couch (builder of the Tremont House, Chicago's first grand hotel) in Chicago City Cemetery, known as Lincoln Park since
B. Ward opens Chicago's first steel mill, North Chicago Rolling Mill, on the North Branch of the Chicago River.
The McVicker’s Theater
opens at 25 West Madison Street. Mathias Klein, a trained locksmith-blacksmith from Germany working in Skokie, produces the first
of pliers (it may have been 1861) made in the United States.
1858John Hoerber opens Chicago’s first brewpub.The Musical Union for vocal and instrumental music is organized, with
J.S. Platt as president, C.M. Cady, conductor. Until 1866, the Musical Union gives an annual series of successful concerts.The Mendelssohn Society is founded by
its conductor, A.W. Dahn.Seipp & Lehman Brewery is established.The city’s first horse-powered
streetcar line begins operating south on State Street from Randolph St. Chicago's police force gets uniforms and the fire department
switches from volunteer to paid.
1859The city’s streetcar line is extended south to 31st. along State Street.In May, the last lots are sold in the
City Cemetery. It occupies 120 acres.In August, Rosehill Cemetery opens.Nelson Morris (born Moritz Beissinger, Germany, 1839),
age 20, starts his own
meatpacking co.William Butler Ogden founds the Chicago & North Western Railway.Chicago's first public drinking fountain
is installed at the northeast corner of the public square.
1860The census counts 112,172 people in Chicago
and 32 breweries.The census counts 22,230 Germans, comprising 20.35% of the city's population. The city is the center of the world's
largest railroad network.Joseph Ryerson, Lumber magnate, saw a whole block of buildings on Lake Street between Clark and LaSalle streets lifted 6 feet
by the simultaneous movement of 6,000 screws. Chicago hosts its first political convention when the newly organized Republican Party comes to
and nominates Abraham Lincoln for president in the Wigwam.The Tremont House serves as the Headquarters for the Illinois
Republican Party during the Republican National Convention.Hans Balatka revives and re-organizes the Philharmonic
Society.The music publishing house of Root & Cady is founded.The Lady Elgin sinks off Evanston killing an estimated 300 people.Thirty-two breweries operate in Chicago.Lucius Olmsted and Lyman Baird form the
real estate firm of L.D. Olmsted & Co. After Olmsted’s death in 1862, age 35, the company is renamed Baird & Warner.
1861Potter Palmer promotes his business by advertising daily. On November 26 he posts: "Notice. Purchases made at my establishment that
prove unsatisfactory either in price, quality, or style, can be returned...for which the purchase money will be with pleasure returned.
P. Palmer." No American merchant had ever made such a promise before.The city's South Side streets begin to be numbered.The northern section of Chicago's cemtery,
formerly sand dunes and swamp, becomes LaFramboise Park, named in honor of an old French-Indian family of early Chicago settlers.Corydon Downer and H.V. Bemis build a
brewery at Sixteenth Street and Lake Street.Chicago Sinai is the city's first Reform congregation. George M. Pullman, with the firm of Ely, Smith and Pullman,
makes his reputation as a building raiser when he lifts the Tremont House
some six feet above grade to match the raising of streets.
1862 The Czechs of Chicago establish the first Czech school.Chicago experiences its first race riot
when white teamsters tried to prevent African Americans from using the omnibus system.On August 2, the Norwegian ship Sleipner sailed up the
Chicago River. It was the first vessel direct from Europe to arrive in Chicago. It held 350 tons of cargo and 107 Norwegian passangers who settled
Chicago. The Sleipner came to Chicago again in 1863, 1864and 1865, paving the way for regular ship commerce between Europe and Chicago.
Wilkes Booth performs Shakespeare's Richard III, and a Chicago Tribune critic applauds his "...fine voice, ... piercing
eye and handsome person."Camp Douglas is converted to a prison for Confederate soldiers.
1863 The Chesbrough plan is adopted to construct intake cribs and deep tunnels two miles off the shore
of Lake Michigan to avoid shoreline pollution,
and better serve Chicago's growing population.The First National Bank of Chicago is founded.
Mary Livermore and Jane Hoge rally the
women of the Midwest through the operation of a gigantic fair, the Northwest Sanitary Fair. Its donated items were sold to fund
medical supplies and treats for the troops. The Chicago fair was imitated throughout the North.The term of office of Mayor is extended
from one to two years. The Rush Street bridge collapses, killing a girl and scores of cattle.
1864George A. Misch and his brother Adolph
learned the stained glass trade in Germany and open their
shop in Chicago with an emphasis on houses of worship.
By 1873, the firm employs 30 men and is
equipped with a 15-horsepower steam engine, which greatly simplifies the cutting at angles of
Park is renamed Lake Park. Construction begins on a road along the
shoreline, a parkway later named Lake Shore Drive.Free mail delivery begins.George W. Lyon and Patrick J. Healy arrive in Chicago from Boston and
start a business selling sheet music.LaFramboise Park is renamed Lake Park. Botti/Panzironi Studios is founded in New York. The firm
continues under this name until 1950.
Known as Botti Studio of Architectural Arts, it continues to operate in Evanston.The Volunteer Firefighters Monument, by
Leonard W. Volk, is erected in Rosehill Cemetery.The first steam-driven elevator in Chicago is installed in the Charles B. Farwell Store, 171 N.
1865The Civil War ends. Marshall Field and Levi Leiter establish a dry-goods store that evolves into Marshall Field &
Opera House opens. It is destroyed in the Great Fire of 1871, but rebuilt by 1873 to house touring companies. The nation’s first steel railroad
rails are rolled at the North Chicago Rolling Mill.The Chicago Board of Trade initiates futures contracts.With Lorenz Brentano as proprietor and
editor-in-chief, Illinois Staats-Zeitung is the second-largest daily newspaper in Chicago.Jacob Rehm & Company Brewery opens
on West Twelfth Street. Jacob Rehm is from Alsace. The Lincoln Special, a funeral train, arrives in Chicago at nine o'clock
on the morning of May 1 and departs for Springfield at 9:30 pm on the night of May 2.Chicago has 13 national Banks, more than any other city
in the US.After the death of President Lincoln, Lake Park is renamed Loncoln Park on June 5.The considerable numbers of livestock
pasturing on public squares had been a nuisance long enough that the City Council finally directed the Board of Police to do something about it in October.Potter Palmer sells his business to rival
merchants Marshall Field and Levi Z. Leiter. While drilling for oil the Chicago Rock Oil Co. gushed water, resulting in Artesian St.
On Christmas Day, the Union
Stock Yards open on Chicago's south side.
1866St. Michael's Church in Old Town is built.
It is rebuilt after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In 1892 this church serves the largest German national parish in Chicago. A fine
set of windows by Franz Mayer of Munich is installed in 1912.In March, under the guidance of Brother Bonaventure Thelen, the Alexian Brothers open their first
in the U.S. on land deeded them by the Bishop of Chicago, corner Dearborn and Schiller.
Austin is founded in Chicago by Norman Williams and John Leverett Thompson as the partnership Williams & Thompson.Dankmar Adler (1844-1910), German born,
American architect, moves to Chicago.The Chicago Academy of Design is established.Cook County Hospital opens.An amended City Charter is passed by the
Illinois legislature. Among other things, Chicago sought to prevent burials within the city limits, to build a city hall, to seize and destroy tainted
to outlaw concealed pistols and colts, sling shots, cross knuckles, brass and lead knuckles, bowie knives, dirks, and daggers.
city completes a two-mile tunnel into the lake to draw "pure water."
The Chicago Academy of
Music, the city’s first important conservatory, is organized. It changes its name to the Chicago Musical College in
1872, and becomes part of Roosevelt University in 1954. The University of Illinois is founded in Urbana.
Chicago’s first YMCA,
Farwell Hall, opens. The Academy of Design is founded in Chicago. It changes its name in 1882, to the Art Institute
Chicago.The Alexian Bros. move their hospital to 546 N. Franklin. The nation’s first temperature controlled train,
the Thunderbolt Express, rushes fresh fruit from
southern Illinois to Chicago. Phillip Armour opens his meat packing
company.The “Two-Mile” crib and tunnel are successfully
put into operation. George Pullman hires his first black porter
(by the 1920s, some 12,000 porters were serving more than 100,000 passengers a night). St. Stanislaus Kostka parish is the first
of many to serve the Polish community.
1868The first river tunnel in the United States is completed under the Chicago
Chicago Terra Cotta Company, the first permanent terra cotta works in the United States, is established at W. 15th St. and Laflin.
Lincoln Park zoo opens with a gift of two swans from New
York City's Central Park.Augustus
Wheeler rides about on a French made velocipede, the first documented bicycle in Chicago.
Bourgeois Germans in Chicago celebrate
the City's first Carnival on March 3 in Crosby's Opera House that was becoming the epicenter of Chicago's German community.
1869The new north
pumping station (now the Chicago Avenue Station) and Water Tower are constructed to regulate the water pumped into the
city. Both survive the Great Fire of 1871, and remain city markers.On April 5, Jewish businessmen organize The Standard Club. The Federal Government recognizes the Chicago Harbor as a national asset
and takes over complete responsibility
for preserving the entrance. Philip
Henrici opens Chicago’s first Viennese style coffeehouse, Henrici's (closes 1962). The first lodge of the Knights of Pythias
in Chicago is Welcome Lodge No.1.The Illinois State Legislature creates the West Parks Commission resulting in the creation of the LaFollette, Douglas, Garfield, Columbus, and Humboldt Parks. The Illinois State Legislature introduces a bill to permit the
Chicago Elevated Railway to construct single elevated tracks over each side of various streets throughout Chicago.
No action is taken.The time
of holding the city election is changed from April to November.The Prohibition Party is organized in Chicago on September 1. Five hundred delegates from nineteen
states attend the party's
initial session at Farwell Hall (Madison Street between Clark and LaSalle). Ives W. McGaffey invents a hand-pumped
wood and canvas vacuum cleaner, "sweeping machine," for which he is awarded an American patent. He names is the Whirlwind
and it is manufactured and sold
by American Carpet Cleaning Co.Counting
only larger breweries, Chicago officially reports a production of 246,212 barrels of beer. 1957Chicago Loop Synagogue is built with a magnificent east
wall stained glass window by Abraham Ratner.
Dr. John H. Rauch formally suggests the formation of the Chicago
1870St. Ignatius College, later Loyola University, is founded. In the spring, the J.L. Fulton & Co. puts the city’s
first bituminous asphaltic concrete (asphalt)pavement at the intersection of Clark and Monroe.
& Buckingham grain elevator, near the mouth of the Chicago River, holds more than 3 million bushels at one time. Twenty brickyards employ some 1,100 people
in Chicago.Nearly half of
Chicago's residents are immigrants.The census counts 51,114 workers in manufacturing and mechanical industries in Chicago,
are German-born, 12,519 are American born, and 11,445 are Irish. Germans constitute 19.83% of the population, but represent 41.02% of the total
declare the "British Blondes" burlesque troupe's performance at Crosby Opera House as "gross animalism," and Chicago Times editor
Wilbur Storey compares the performers to prostitutes. The "Blondes" are so incensed that they confront Storey on Wabash Avenue
and horsewhip him at gunpoint.Chicago
has sixty-eight bookstores, one for every 4,396 inhabitants.Chicago has 17 candy businesses.
German made lager beer becomes
Chicago’s favorite drink.The first hydraulic elevator is installed by C.W. Baldwin in the store
and warehouse of Burley and Company
on West Lake Street. On
October 15, Chicago’s “official” climatological
record keeping begins at 181 W. Washington.
1871The La Salle Street tunnel under the Chicago River is completed.After a very dry summer with more than 30 neighborhood fires, The
Great Chicago Fire on October 8-9 kills over 300 people, destroys
17,450 structures, and devastates some 2.7 square miles including the downtown and North Side. More than 90,000 people are left
While not yet finished, the Nixon
Building, northeast corner of Monroe and LaSalle Streets, designed
by Otto H.
Matz, is the first fire-proof building built in the city. It was damaged so little
by the fire
it was opened one week after the Great Fire and is occupied at once by leading architects
real estate agent, William D. Kerfoot, erects the first building in the burnt district at
89 Washington Street. The push to rebuild helps Chicago survive the national
economic Panic of 1873.
American Express Company building, on the south side of Monroe near State Street, has a façade designed by H.H. Richardson in his ideal
American style, now called Richardsonian Romanesque. Aaron
Montgomery Ward invents the mail order catalogue.Cargo ships begin using the Calumet Harbor for the first time. Wells Fargo of San Francisco opens its first Chicago office.
On October 15, Chicago’s climatological record keeping moves to 427
mortality rate in Chicago among children five years and younger is 70.7%. Chicago has more than 50 miles of wood-paved street. (The
technique was developed by Samuel Nicholson of Boston).Chicago
is the hub of a railroad system of 10,750 miles of line.Some 75 passenger trains per day operate to and from Chicago's terminals. 1872James Renwick, the foremost American architect of his day,
designs Second Presbyterian Church at Michigan Avenue and 19th Street. The interior of the church burns in 1900, and it redesigned by
Howard Van Doren Shaw, who saves superb windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany and installs windows
by Sir Edward Burne-Jones and Healy & Millet.
William Louis Lehl, born 1846 in Ulm, Germany, educated University
of Stuttgart, in US since 1867,
opens an architectural practice in Chicago specializing in breweries, other industrial plants and motion
G. Pratt and George P. Upton, the Chicago Tribune's first music critic, found The Apollo Music Club, known today as the Apollo Chorus, is founded to
bring cultural life back to the burned city. Over the years the Apollo Chorus has given the Chicago premiers of such works as Bach’s Mass in B Minor and St. Matthew Passion; Elgar’s The
Light of Life, Caractacus, and
Apostles; Berlioz’s La damnation de Faust, Te Deum and long-lost Messe Solennelle;
Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis, and the U.S. premier of Weber/Berlioz’s Le Freyschütz at the Ravinia
Festival.The Committee of
Seventy, composed of leading and influential citizens and clergymen, is created to reform city activities and to regulate saloons and enforce a Sunday blue law.
Pressured by Mancel Talcott,
President of the Police Board, Mayor Medill orders the enforcement of section 4, chapter 5 of the city ordinance to close Chicago saloons on Sunday. The Germans
and Irish object. Doctor
John E. Siebel, former Chief Chemist of Chicago, opens a laboratory for analysis and prevention of beer spoiling pathogens. He also founds the Siebel Institute
of Technlogy. Chicago Terra
Cotta Company is not damaged by the Great Chicago Fire. Its production is key to rebuilding.
On June 11, Chicago’s climatological record keeping moves to 20 North
City law prohibits the city's bridges from remaining open longer than 10 minutes during the morning,
noon and evening rush hours, but the "rule is shamefully disregarded,"
the Chicago Tribune reports.The
city hires its first African-American police officer.Furniture Workers Union No. 1 is organized.Leopold Schlesinger, born in Brotchizen, Germany and David
Mayer, a German immigrant, found Schlesinger & Mayer, a dry goods store.
1873An Exposition Building is erected on the lakefront intended for an annual
exposition of industrial products
of Illinois and adjoining states. Among the principal promoters and contributors are Cyrus H. McCormick, Potter Palmer and R.T.
Crane. The building is replaced in 1892 for what would become the new Art Institute. John Jones, a wealthy African-American, is elected a Cook County commissioner. He is the first
black person to
hold elective office in the state of Illinois.
June 8, Chicago’s climatological record keeping moves to the corner
of Madison & LaSalle.
The Palmer House re-opens. Since the opening the hotel’s kitchens have never been
closed, even for a day.In September, Chicago participates actively in the financial Panic,
followed by a depression that puts
a quick stop to Chicago's rebuilding after the Great Fire. The Chicago Tribune reports that the
new city directory shows Chicago has 212 churches, 80 newspapers and 31 railroad companies.The City has 17 brick manufacturers and 1 terra cotta company, Chicago Terra Cotta
Co. The City funds the entire
cost of the Courtland Street Bridge.
able to move Chicago's Catholic politicians to action, the mostly Protestant Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is founded in Evanston with Frances E.
Willard (born 1839) as its first president. Chicago
boasts one saloon for every 26 men.In Evanston, The Grosse Point Lighthouse opens. Its Fresnel lens projects a three-wick oil
lamp light some 21 miles.
On July 14, forty-seven acres bounded by Clark, Polk, Michigan and Van Buren burned with an intensity reminiscent of the Great Fire of 1871. The fire
stopped just before it reached the rebuilt business district.The
all male Chicago Literary Club begins to meet to share their love of literature.
The Workingman’s Party is formed at West Side Turner
Hall (Roosevelt Road and Halsted Street). Cedar block paving of streets becomes common.
1875Lake Shore Drive opens as a Lincoln Park carriage drive. The remains of the Old Post Office Building
is fitted up by John H. Haverly into the New Adelphi,
the largest theater erected in Chicago.Philip Henrici opens the Lincoln Pavilion at Clark and Grant Place, known as the
fancy beer garden with entertainment by a forty-piece orchestra. It attreacts society, not the beer drinking public and closes in 1878. It opens again in 1884 as Walker
& Koester's Summer Garden, admission is free. The Daily News is founded by Melville E. Stone, Percy Meggy, and William Dougherty. Edgar Rice Burroughs, author of Tarzan and John Carter
novels, is born in Chicago.
1876The Western Sand Blast Manufacturing Co. begins to specialize in sandblasted, chipped, etched,
and beveled ornamental
glass. The firm does work for Adler & Sullivan in the 1880s and Edgar
Miller in the 1920s. Victoria, Queen of England since 1837, becomes Empress of India. On May 6, the
only tornado ever to hit downtown Chicago cuts a 4-mile-long, 100-yard wide path, killing two and injuring 35.The Western Brewer, a German/English beer trade journal,
starts publication by J.M. Wing & Co. A group of female reformers
establish the Young Women’s Christian Association of Chicago. Chicago
White Stockings baseball team is one of eight charter members of the National League.
A.G. Spalding is their first manager,
pitches the first National League shutout game, and White Stockings go on to win the first National League championship.Chicagoan John W.E.Thomas becomes the first African-American elected
to serve as a representative
in the Illinois General Assembly.Victor F. Lawson purchases The Chicago Daily News.Walter Burley Griffin is born in Chicago. Ferdinand Bunte, Gustav A. Bunte, and Charles A. Spoehr
found a candy manufactory on State St. By 1910, Bunte Candy Co. employs some 1,200 people.
1877Theodore Thomas gives a series of summer night concerts in the Exposition Building on the lakefront.The Pacific Garden Mission begins offering refuge to the downtrodden.
Battle of the
Viaduct (16th and Halsted Streets), a deadly clash between the German furniture workers union and police/national guard.H.V. Bemis, co-owner of the Downer & Bemis Brewery, working with inventor David
Boyle, a Scotchman, erects
an ammonia compression machine in his brewery for mechanical refrigeration. Quickly perfected, the Boyle Ice Machine weighed over 50-tons and supplied refrigeration
for the entire brewery. It was
an instant success. Within five months, Boyle shipped 22 refreigeration units to brewers throughout the US.The Austin_Western Co., in Mount Prospect and Chicago invents the first road grader.
Chicago’s warmest December on record has an average temperature of 43.4° contributing to an average winter temperature of 37.2°.
1878The single-hole ticket punch is invented in Chicago.The fire pole is invented in a Chicago firehouse.A "Floating Hospital" opens at north Avenue pier. This
facility closes in the late 1880s.The first open air concert is held in a Lincoln Park bandshell. By June, the Chicago Telephonic Exchange has 267 corporate
and private subscribers talking to
each other on lines furnished by Alexander Graham Bell.Keeley Brewing Company is established.The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company is founded by a group of investors including
John R. True. By 1927 it
has become the largest terra cotta manufacturer in the United States with main factory at 2525 North Clybourn.Bunte Candy Co. opens a retail and wholesale candy company at 416 State Street.
By 1918 they
employ 1,800 people.Ferdinand Bernett, an attorney, publishes the city's first black newspaper.Emma Abbott forms the Abbott English
Opera Company in Chicago. It is the first opera company formed by a woman. The company sings only in English.
1879The Chicago Academy of Fine Arts is organized. Its core art collection
is acquired at a sheriff salefrom
the bankrupt Academy of Design. In 1882, the Academy of Fine Arts changes its name to the
Art Institute of Chicago,
a school of art and design, and a collection of objects of art. The Quaker Oats Company is founded in Chicago. Harry and Max Hart, Joseph Schaffner, and Marcus Marx
introduce men’s clothing in sizes Small,
Medium, and Large. The firm of Hart Schaffner and Marx introduces national advertising for men’s
clothing, and the selection
of material through swatches of cloth.Marshall Field and Levi Leiter open a store in their own new building at State and Washington Streets.
gives his first season of Italian opera in Chicago in the New Adelphi Theater. The Union League Club of Chicago is organized.The Apollo Chorus performs George Frideric Handel's Messiah
and has done so every year since.Edward B. Butler (1853 - 1928) moves to Chicago and founds Butler Brothers that becomes the
largest wholesale business
in the world.
1880George L. Healy and Louis J. Millet begin
their very influential partnership, Healy & Millet. The firm's stained glass and decorating skill are associated with some of the most important
in Chicago after the Great Fire. Louis Millet is
associated with the Art Institute of Chicago from
Fred. W. Wolf Company of Chicago obtains the patent rights to the
Linde Ice Machine, introduced
in Germany by Professor C.P.G.Linde of Munich. The Wacker & Birke Brewing & Malting Company
of Chicago is the first brewery
to install this type of refrigeration unit in the US.
The furniture fabricator S. Karpen & Bros. is founded by German immigrant brothers.
hires architect Solon S. Beman to design the town and railroad car factories of Pullman, near Lake Calumet. Chicago has 33 bridges over the Chicago River. All are center-pier
Hell" is an area of the city bounded by La Salle St, Division St. and the Chicago River. This area was famous for its depravity, including brothels, some 400
saloons, robbery, cocaine and morphine
sales. Rabbi Emil Hirsch
takes over Chicago Sinai Congregation and builds it into the city's largest. 172 Chinese call Chicago home.Field & Leiter do $25 million in
is the first city in Illinois to light streets electrically. Sarah Bernhard makes her Chicago debut at the McVickers, followed by 27 curtain calls.
Eastern European Jews start to
arrive in large numbers and the Russian Refugee Aid Committee is established to find shelter and employment for the new immigrants. Several other organizations are soon set up to aid the poor.Marshall Field buys out Levi Leiter.
The store is renamed Marshall Field & Co.George "Harvey" Schaller opens Schaller’s Pump Restaurant, 3714 S. Halsted St., in Bridgeport.
The fifth generation of the founding family continues to own it. Eugene A Sitting starts publishing Brauer und Malzer,
a trade beer industry journal.J.
Lewis Cochran begins to build an upscale subdivision called Edgewater on 380 acres of farmland.
Cochran also hires
an architect, Joseph L. Silsbee who in turn gives Frank Lloyd Wright his first job as an architectural draftsman.The first Madigan dry goods store opens across from what
is now the United Center. Eventually, under the farsighted leadership of Joseph Denis Madigan, Jr., stores open in Yorktown Shopping
Center in Lombard (1968,
where Madigan's was a charter store), Woodfield Mall in Schaumberg, Harlem and Irving Plaza in Chicago, North Riverside Mall and Chicago
Ridge Mall among others. The
Chicago Literary Club is organized.
1882Chicago's first cable-car debuts
January 28 on State Street, from Madison to 21st street. The cable weighs
8 tons per mile. It is operated by the Chicago City Railway. Chicago Passanger Railway follows in 1883. By 1887 Chicago has
the largest cable-car system in the world. Ghosts, Henrik Ibsen's banned-everywhere-in-Europe
play, has its world's premier in Chicago.
John H. Haverly opens a new New Adelphi theater, with Robson and Crane in Shakespeare’s
In 1885 the theater changes its name to the Columbia.Asphalt becomes an accepted street surface. Bicycling is allowed in Lincoln Park.Wacker & Birk Brewing and Malting Company is founded. Chicago has a population of 580,693 people
and 3,759 saloons, one for every 149 men, women, and children.In the 16th and 17th ward, at the lower end of Milwaukee Avenue, there
is a liquor license for
dozen drinkers.Over one
million tons, the most ever, are shipped on the I&M Canal. Children's Memorial Hospital opens. At 10-stories, the Montauk Building is the tallest in Chicago.
1883On March 24, long-distance
telephone service is inaugurated between Chicago and New York.Several major railroads
sponsor The General Time Convention in the Grand Pacific Hotel, corner of La Salle and Jackson. The resulting "Day of Two Noons,"
November 18, completes the plan
proposed by William F.
Allen, to establish four equal time zones across the country, each one hour ahead of the zone to its west. On
that Sunday the Allegheny Observatory at the University of
Pittsburgh transmits a telegraph signal when it is exactly noon on the 90th meridian. Railroad clocks throughout the United States are then reset on the hour
according to their regional time zone. And, all railroad clocks in each zone are synchronized to strike the hour simultaneously.The city's Washington Park Jockey Club is established.There are 190 Chinese-owned laundries registered in the city.Junk Brewery is founded by Joseph Junk. After his death in 1887,
Magdalena Junk, his wife, takes over the business.The
first electric lighting is installed in Lincoln Park.The Donohue Building (711 S. Dearborn St.) is the first large printing factory in what becomes
printing house row, South Dearborn Street. Until 1971 the Donohue block serves as the headquarters of the M.A. Donohue Publishing Co. Oscar R. Mayer and his brothers lease a meat market in
Chicago. Within five-years the Oscar Mayer Company on Sedgwick Street becomes a successful meatpacking business.
1884The Home Insurance Building, corner of La Salle and Adams, is the
first building with an iron and steel frame designed and built in Chicago, possibly the world, by William Le Baron Jenny.Washington Park Race Track opens. Levant M. Richardson invents the ball-bearing wheel making
possible the modern roller skate. The Alarm, a weekly anarchist newspaper is launched in Chicago. Its first press run is 15,000 copies.The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor unions of the United
States and Canada convene in Chicago
and declare that the eight-hour day would go into effect across the country on May 1, 1886. Representing 69 candy makers, The National Confectioners Association is founded.Louis C. Tiffany & Co. is listed as decorators in the
Lakeside City Dirctory with offices in the Central Music Hall. Named Augustana
Hospital, a 15-patient facility is founded by the Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church at the corner of Cleveland and Lincoln Avenue.
1885Joseph E. Flanagan and William C. Biedenweg, a German trained
craftsman, establish Flanagan &
Biedenweg Co. By 1900 the firm is the largest of the Chicago producers of stained glass windows
and ecclesiastic use. The firm is active until 1953.
By the mid-1880s, several German producers of stained glass windows have opened offices and made local arrangements to sell and install stained glass
windows in Chicago and vicinity. A typhoid epidemic kills a thousand people.R.R. Donnelley secures its first contract to print telephone directories for the Chicago Telephone
Co.Designed by W.W.
Boyington, The Board of Trade moves into new headquarters at the foot of LaSalleStreet. Its 300-foot tall tower is the highest structure in Chicago.Purchasing the Chicago Union Brewing Comapny, John S. Cooke, an
Irishman, names his purchase Cooke Brewing Company.Chicago's
Colored Men's Professional Business Directory lists 15 restaurants and 20 saloons. The Chicago Opera Festival Association
constructs an auditorium in the Exposition Building seating
10,000 people. It holds a successful season of opera at
popular prices.H.V. Bemis
of Downer & Bemis Brewing Co. sells his share of the business and opens the city's most opulent hotel, Hotel Richelieu, on Michigan Ave.(today, 318 S.
Michigan). Clad in imported white marble and fitted with an art gallery, the Parisian inspired hotel with its French cuisine and reknowned wine cellar thrive, only to go bankrupt in 1893. On December
2, Charles Cretors is issued the first peddler's license to operate his popcorn machine.
Swift & Co. uses 450,000 tons of ice
every year for shipping meat.
1886On May 1, Albert Parsons, his wife Lucy and their two children
lead 80,000 workers up Michigan Avenue, in what is regarded as the first-ever May Day Parade in support of the
eight-hour work day.Alessandro Gonnella opens his first storefront bakery on DeKoven Street in Little
Italy. On May 4, striking workers meet to hear speeches in Haymarket Square. As the meeting
170 police arrive, a bomb is thrown, seven police
are killed, eight anarchist leaders are arrested,
four eventually hanged.
The following year a day of commemoration is set on May 1, May Day. Some 5,000 cases of typhoid are reported in Chicago.Lake View, Hyde Park and Jefferson Park are annexed by Chicago.Wacker & Seipp, Chicago beer brewers, donate funds to erect
a statue of Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller, to Lincoln Park. This sculpture is a second cast by William Pelargus of Stuttgart, Germany. The sculpture stands on a Chicago fabricated pedestal designed
by Professor C. Dollinger, also of Stuttgart, Germany.
1887January 1, Chicago’s climatological record keeping
moves to the corner of Clark & Washington.
The world's first softball game is played on Thanksgiving Day in the
Farragut Boat Club on the
Side of Chicago. The Art
Institute of Chicago opens in its first building designed by Burnham & Root at Michigan Avenue and Van Buren Street.
The Newberry Library is founded as a free public reference
library. Its present building, designed by Henry Ives Cobb, opens to the public in 1893.Abraham Lincoln: The Man (a.k.a Standing Lincoln), by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, is erected in Lincoln Park. It has been called the most important sculpture
of Lincoln from the 19th century.The Chicago Society of Artists is founded. With 86 miles of track, eleven power plants,
and over 1,500 cars, Chicago boasts the largest cable car system in the world.
The longest single cable, 5.3 miles, is on Chicago City Railway's Cottage Grove Avenue line. The cable weighs 8-tons per mile. The cable
cars run until 1906.Der
Braumeister is the official publication of The Master Brewers Association of Chicago.
Richard E. Schmidt, born in Bavaria, opens his architectural practice
in Chicago.The first central
station of the Chicago Edison Company is disguised as an office building in the heart of the financial district at 120 West Adams Street.Some 21,000 ships arrive and depart from the Chicago River.President Grover Cleveland lays the cornerstone for the Auditorium
building on October 5.In December, August Schuenemann
is believed to have delivered the first boatload of Christmas
1888Linden Glass Company is founded. The firm manufactures windows for George Pullman, Frank
Lloyd Wright and others until 1934. More than forty synagogues are scattered
throughout the Near West Side Maxwell Street area.
Until the first skyscrapers were built in the mid-1880s, only Chicago's Loop is paved, the rest
city still had mostly dirt streets and sidewalks of wood.A.G. Spalding takes a group of major league players on the first ever around the world to promote
baseball and Spalding sporting
goods. The team stops in Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon, Egypt, Italy, France and England. .In July, Permit number 2325 is issued to the Germania Maennerchor and the cornerstone is placed for the Germania Club, Clark and North Ave. September 8, with Mayor Roche in attendance;
long-time Republican leader
Hermann Raster, "the Nestor of German journalism in America," editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung gives the opening speech. William August Fiedler
is the architect and he personally
lays the mortar using a silver trowel.
Victor F. Lawson takes over full ownership of the Chicago Daily News.
Jacob Bauer of Terre Haute, Indiana founds the Liquid Carbonics Manufacturing Company in
Chicago, becoming the Midwest's
first manufacturer of liquedfied carbon dioxide. The Republican National Convention is held in the partially finished Auditorium Building
where Benjamin Harrison is nominated as a presidential candidate.
1889Chicago annexes 120 surrounding square miles by popular referendum, including towns and
villages such as Jefferson, Lake View, Lake,
Hyde Park, and part of Cicero, resulting in 182.9 square miles, making it physically the world's largest city. With an official population of 1,098,576, the census of
1890 declares Chicago the official "second city" of the United States. This population represented a growth increase of almost 37 times since its founding in 1830. In comparison London's
and Paris' populations doubled, Berlin's quadrupled, and New York's increased by 4.1 times. Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr found Hull House and introduce the
first children's playground to
the United States.Lyon &
Healy produce their first harps.McAvoy Brewing Company and the Wacker & Birk Brewing and Malting Company are the first Chicago breweries acquired by an English-owned syndicate, the Chicago Breweries,
Limited. Other acquisitions quickly
follow. The Chicago stained
glass and decorating firm of Healy & Millet exhibits at the great Paris World's
Fair where their entire exhibition
of American Glass is purchased for installation in the national
des Arts Décoratifs. Paris, France. This installation signals the birth of Art Nouveau in Europe. Byron Laflin Smith, son of Solomon A. Smith, founds The Northern Trust Company, and in 1912,
Illinois Tool Works. Gibsons Steakhouse opens. Marie Owens becomes one of five female
factory inspectors who enforces child-labor and compulsory education laws in Chicago. In 1891 she is transferred to the Police Department
the powers of arrest, the title of detective Sergeant and a police star.On Memorial Day, the Chicago police erect a commemorative statue to their
fallen comrades in Haymarket
their plant at 16th and State Arthur and Charles Libby develop a technique for canning corned beef.Chicago Paper Tube & Can Co. opens. President Benjamin Harrison dedicates the Auditorium Building
on December 9. Opera star Adelina Patti sings Home Sweet Home. Louis Sullivan has his offices on the 16th and 17th floors of the
Auditorium Building's tower.
1890Adler & Sullivan design the magnificent Temple K. A. M. at
Indiana and 33rd Street. In 1922, the
building becomes Pilgrim Baptist Church. Fire guts the church January 6, 2006, leaving a
hollow shell. On 1 February
Chicago’s climatological record keeping moves to the corner of Wabash/Congress.Aaron Montgomery Ward successfully sues the city to keep Grant
Park open. Sara Hallowell, secretary of the art department of the Interstate Industrial Exposition
art to Chicago and through Chicago the nation. On display are six Monets, four Pissaros and one Degas, all borrowed from the avant-garde French dealer Paul Durand-Ruel. Mickey Finn, a Chicago bartender in the
Custom House Levee District, invents an infamous drink. Ernest Kimball opens Kimball’s, the country’s first public cafeteria. It is the inspiration
for many similar
eateries offering “cheap fare with self-service."
Swedes are the third largest ethnic group in Chicago behind the Irish and the Germans.The 1890 census records 15,000 African-Americans in Chicago.A city Art
Commission is established to approve all works of art before they become the property
of the city. An early notable acquisition is Lorado Taft's "The Fountain of the Great Lakes".A
Municipal Art League is established to motivate and arouse civic pride.The lavish Tearoom at Marshall Field’s opens offering
lady shoppers a place to rest and refresh.On October 18, the Hyde Park Thomson-Houston Light Company (HPTHLC),
begins generating electricity
and "hustling" residential service.Chicago has 44 swing bridges and 8 fixed bridges over the I&M
Canal, the Calumet and Chicago Rivers.
Marketing itself as the first "electric suburb" because it had state of the
art streetlights, Edison Park,
a Far North Side community, receives permission from Thomas Edison to name their village in his honor. Edison Park joined Chicago in 1910. Starting October 2nd,
the first electric trolley line operates from 95th Street and Stony Island to South Chicago.
Thomas founds the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO) and makes its home in the Auditorium Building. U.S. premier by CSO of Dvorak's Violin Concerto. Quinn Chapel A.M.E. Church, Chicago's oldest African-American congregation
and second oldest
Methodist church, is designed by Henry F. Starbuck.
Its tin clad interior and stained glass windows
are unique reminders of its origin.Marie Owens, a female factory inspector, is transferred to the
Police Department and given the
powers of arrest, the title of detective Sergeant and a police star.The monthly, Der Braumeister, is taken over by Doctors
Max Henius and Robert Wahl and renamed the American Brewers Review. Published in Chciago until 1939, the American Brewers Review focuses on local politics and its effect on the industry. in 1939. Designed by Chicago architects Willoughby J. Edbrooke
and Franklin Pierce Burnham, the Mecca Apartments open. Located on the busy corner of 34th and State, the one block large structure
built around an atrium,
has 12 stores along State and 96 flats in its four-stories. In the early 1950s the much neglected Mecca is demolished and
S.R. Crown Hall, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, rises in its place.
Provident Hospital, the first Black-owned and operated hospital in America
is established by Dr.
Daniel Hale Williams, and African-American surgeon.Walter Crane, British arts and crafts advocate, visits Chicago for 5 weeks, completing his book
The Claims of
Decorative Arts, the preface of which is dated "Edgewater, Illinois 1892." Possibly 1,700 Chicagoans die of typhoid.
of streets becomes common.
1892The University of Chicago, funded by John D. Rockefeller, opens its doors. Amos Alonzo Stagg, the nation's first tenured professor
of physical culture, begins football practice
on a playing area called Marshall's Field, later renamed Stagg Field.Milton Florsheim and his father, Sigmund,
start the Florsheim Shoe Co. and promptly revolutionize
the men's footwear industry by selling under the manufacturer's name, not the retailer's.
The Van Buren Street Tunnel under the Chicago River is completed.
The city inspector report lists
18 central electric stations and 498 self-contained systems that
power a total of 273,600 incandescent lights and 16,415
July 1, Samuel Insull assumes the position of
chief executive officer of Chicago Edison, a
position he would hold for the next forty years. The Illinois Pure Aluminum Co. is founded in Lemont, Illinois. In 1897
the company adds a
to make cast utensils. On
June 6, Chicago's first "L" route begins operation between Congress
and 39th Street. By May,
1893, the elevated serves the World's Columbian Exposition in Jackson Park.Designed by Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, the Schiller Theatre
Building celebrates its formal opening
on October 1. In its lobby Herman Michalowski of Milwaukee painted an allegorical mural showing the Genius of Rhetoric standing between busts of Schiller
and Shakespeare, at whose feet sat
Clio, the muse of history, writing names of these titans in the annals of world history. Inside are two murals by Arthur Feudal and two plaster reliefs by Richard
Bock, one of which shows Schiller riding the winged horse Pegasus, led by the figure of Genius, who holds the torch of enlightenment. Outside, on the second story loggia facing Randolph Street, and
in the tower, sculptor Frederick Almenrõder created busts of Beethoven, Wagner, and Goethe, among others. Construction begins on the Sanitary
& Ship Canal, eventually reversing the flow of the Chicago River.Francis J. Dewes, a German brewer, donates a statue of Friedrich Heinrich Alexander
Von Humboldt by the Berlin
artist, Felix Gõrling to Humboldt Park. In September, soap manufacturer, William Wrigley, Jr. adds a new premium to his slow selling
Lotta baking powder line, chewing gum. By 1895 Wrigley is in the chewing gum business.
1893The World's Columbian Exposition opens. The central attraction of the
Exposition is a great wheel
devised by George Ferris. Its axle is the largest forged piece of steel ever made, 33” diameter,
45 feet long. The
wheel is 260 feet in diameter, each of its 36 cars carries up to 60 people, 2180 people per turn. A ride costs 50 cents, lasts two turns, 20 minutes.
There are 1,340 lights on the rotating section and 1,100 bulbs on the supports. In total over 90,000 incandescent bulbs and 5,000 arc lamps are used. Sophia Hayden, the nation’s first college-trained woman
architect, designs the Woman’s Building. The “Brownie” is invented by the Palmer House chef to use as a dessert in box lunches
Building.The Liberty Bell
arrives in Chicago from Philadelphia on the evening of April 28 for display at the Fair. Photographer Eadweard Muybridge projects
motion pictures on his Zoopraxiscope to a live audience
at the World’s Columbian Exposition, two years before the Lumiere
Brothers are credited with beginning
the formal history of movies in Paris.The Illinois Manufacturers Association, the oldest association of its kind in the U.S., is founded. A chapel designed by Louis Comfort Tiffany wins several gold medals
and introduces the world to "Favrile" glass.Frederick Douglass speaks on the subject of Haiti, the world's first Black republic
at Quinn Chapel.The Art
Institute of Chicago commissions Tiffany Glass & Decorating Co. to create a gallery, funded
by Mrs. Thomas Nelson Page
as a memorial to her first husband, Henry Field. Farida Mazar Spyropolous, a.k.a. Little Egypt, a hootchy
kootchy dancer, finds fame on the Midway.
America’s first model electric kitchen is exhibited at the World’s Columbian
Exposition.The Ludvik Players
perform Gazdina Roba; the first documented professional dramatic performance
in the Czech language in the United States, in Thalia Hall,
Daniel Hale Williams, the first African-American member of the American College of Surgeons, performs the first successful heart surgery on James Cornish,
July 9, in Provident Hospital. Two Austrian immigrants bring their frankfurter sausage recipe from Vienna to the
World's Fair and start a
taste sensation that becomes the Vienna Beef Empire.F.W. Rueckheim invents Cracker Jacks to sell at the World's
Columbian Exposition. Originally sold as "Candied Popcorn and Peanuts," the taste treat receives its name, Cracker Jacks, in 1896.Texas chili goes national when Texas sets up a San Antonio Chili
stand at the World's Columbian
pancake maker, Aunt Jemima makes her debut at the Fair. Chicagoan Nancy Green, a former Kentucky slave plays Jemima. Buttons
were handed out with Green's likeness and the
words, "I'se in town, honey."R.R. Donnelley prints the innovative Art Nouveau books
and posters of Chicago publishers
Stone & Kimball.Sears,
Roebuck & Co. is founded and publishes its first catalog, only watches! Charles T. Lucklow opens the Globe Laundry Co., the city’s
first commercial laundry. Chicago
has about two thousand miles of roads, many paved. Chicago has six panorama mural companies and six panorama rotunda buildings, each housing a 50x400 foot (20,000 square feet) mural. December 8 is
the official opening of the Art Institute of Chicago.
1894The United States Golf Association is co-organized by the Chicago
February 12, an intense low pressure
results in a "severe gale" over Chicago with record setting winds of 68 mph and gusts to 87 mph.Comedian Jack Benny is born as Benny Kubelsky in Chicago on February 14. He dies Dec. 1974. The two bronze lions, designed by Edward Kemeys, are installed
at the main entrance of the Art Institute of Chicago.Bismarck
Gardens (beer garden) seats about 4,700 at the corner of Halsted and Grace, in Lakeview.Archibald Motley, age 3, born in New Orleans, moves to Chicago
with his parents and settle in Englewood,
the first black family to do so the German and Irish neighborhood.In the 1890s, asphalt and brick paving of Chicago streets
became the norm. (The paving of Chicago streets started with grading from1835-44, followed by planking, 1844-55, and cedar blocks in 1874. Asphalt became common in 1882,
and bricks in 1891).Lucy
Porter is recorded as the first Chicago woman to ride a bicycle wearing "bloomers." The Field Museum of Natural History,
named after its lead patron, Marshall Field, is established.
The Union Elevated Railroad Company is organized to construct what was officially known as the
Union Loop, referred to commonly as “the
Loop”. Ellen Gates
Starr of Hull House collaborates with the Women’s Club to found the Chicago Public
School Art Society.Tiffany's "Favrile" glass is displayed at the Art Institute
A. Holzer designs a mosaic frieze for the lobby atrium of the Marquette Building. British writer William T. Stead publishes If Christ Came to Chicago,
and expose about the city's vice
and corruption.Total sales
for city saloons were around $70,000,000, beer accounting for $34,000.000 of the total.Chicago has a total of fifty-three breweries and ranks third nationally
after Philadelphia and New York.On November 13, in Chicago, the inventor Frederick Weeks Wilcox
patented a version of what he called
a "paper pail," which was a single piece of paper, creased into segments and folded into
a (more or less) leakproof
container secured with a dainty wire handle on top. Today we know it asthe Chinese takeout container. 1895Chicago becomes the nation's bicycle capital with the help of Ignatz
Schwinn, a German mechanic,
and Adolph Arnold, a Chicago meatpacker who provides capital. A top-of-the-line Schwinn sells forabout $150.00, half a working-man’s annual wage.
Nicholas Selig, a magician interested in projection develops a film projection
system, the Polyscope, in Chicago.Francisco Terrace, the first subsidized housing in Chicago, is a 40-unit
designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. A classic in the history of low-income housing, the building stands at 255 N. Francisco Terrace until it is demolished in
1974.Chicago's first bathing
beach opens at Fullerton Avenue with separate beaches for boys and girls. About
276 firms manufacture furniture in Chicago.Catherine O'Leary (born 1827), an Irish immigrant whose cow allegedly started the Great Fire of 1871, dies. She is buried at Mount Olivet Catholic Cemetery.George Halas, the founder and long time owner of the Chicago Bears,
is born in Chicago on February 2.Fifteen Chicago bibliophiles found the Caxton Club. Chicago claims the world’s largest
picture sign with an ad for Wilson Whiskey at the corner of
Madison and Wabash.Designed in 1893, following a patented design by
Swiss-trained Chicagoan, William Scherzer, the first Scherzer rolling-lift bridge is completed. The Chicago-based Scherzer Rolling Lift
Bridge Company develops
an additional 14 bridge patents and builds more than 175 Scherzer bridges nationwide by 1916. The first ever car race, billed as a "Motorcycle" race,
from Jackson Park to Grant Park via Waukegan, is organized for November 2 between Frank Duryea and Oscar Mueller.
When Duryea drops out Mueller goes it alone and wins! The first "official" automobile race with more
than one contestant is held Thanksgiving Day. The race is from Jackson Park to Evanston and back. Snow slowed speeds to an average
of just over 5 mph. The winner
in 10 hours, 17 minutes, is Frank Duryea and his brother Charles, owners of Duryea Motor Wagon Co. Second is Oscar Mueller. Both drive Benz (a German
made engine) powered vehicles.The
former Hotel Richelieu (today, 318 S. Michigan Ave.) is acquired by Karpen & Bros. furniture manufacturers, who commission Hessenmueller & Meldahl to do
a complete makeover. Eugene
V. Debs, President of the American Railway Union, is released in November after being jailed for his involvement in the 1884 Pullman strike. The strike
effects more than 250,000 workers in 27 states.
1896On May 25, a tornado, estimated
to have been of F3 intensity, cuts a 4.5 mile-long path of destruction east from the Leyden-Maine town line to the Jefferson-Niles
area, directly through Park
Ridge, Edison Park and Norwood Park. At the weather office located in the Auditorium Tower at Wabash and Congress, winds gusted to 62 mph and a cloudburst
dropped nearly an inch and a quarter of rain in 15 minutes.At 727 feet long and 300 feet wide, the Coliseum bills itself as "the largest permanent convention
hall in the world."
William Jennings Bryan
persuades the Democratic Convention, held in the Coliseum Building inChicago to endorse silver as monetary standard. Demanding
the free coinage of silver, Bryan shouts: "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." At age 36,
the "Boy Orator" from Nebraska received the Democratic nomination for President.Chicago uses landfill to extend Grant Park into the lake. In July, the Chicago Cycle Club hosts its first indoor
bicycle races in the Coliseum Building. The especially designed track quickly acquires a reputation for "being the fastest indoor track
in the world." William
Selig builds the world’s first movie studio. Opening in 1897, it produces The Tramp andthe Dog in Rogers Park. It’s the first narrative
film made in Chicago.Chicago
Bicycle Exhibition opens in a blizzard, attracting 10,000 visitors on its first day. Ultimately 100,000 paid the 50cents entrance fee. The Fair covered 60,000
square feet, had 368 booths operated by 289 separate exhibitors. The one-week long show was estimated to yield $10,000,000 worth of goods sold to the bicycle agents.
Eugene O. Reed Co. manufactures
Chicago Federation of Labor is founded.With 25 bicycle manufacturer's in the city (up from 4 in 1890), the Chicago Tribune procalims: "Chicago is the bicycle center of the United States."Chicago has 54 cycling clubs.O'Brien's Art Galleries sell "Favrile" glass.The Long Man and Short Man Gang terrorize the city.House Beautiful magazine starts publication in December
in Chicago. It quickly becomes the principal organ for the Arts and Crafts Movement in America.
1897Albert G. Spalding makes Chicago the center of the sports
A. Holzer collaborates with architect Charles Coolidge to design the interior of the Chicago Public Library and Louis Comfort Tiffany and Co.
of New York installs the largest stained glass dome the firm ever fabricates in what is now
Preston Bradley Hall of the Chicago Cultural Center.
Hall Sherwood, a celebrated concert pianist and teacher, founds Sherwood Conservatory.
The Chicago Teachers Federation
is founded. Rumors accuse Adolph
L. Luetgert, a German sausage maker with a factory at 601-629 Diversey
(corner Hermitage, became a condominium in 1999), of killing his
wife, Louise, by stuffing her into a grinding machine. Police recovered wedding rings and human bone fragments from the factory.
While awaiting trial in
jail, Luetgert received 2,385 female visitor; 33 proposed marriage. He dies within a year of receiving a sentence of life in prison.
The Chicago Gas Light & Coke Company merges into the People’s Gas Light & Coke Co.Sears, Roebuck & Co. publishes a 500-page catalog.In August the Chicago Tribune reports that police handled
100 bicycle accidents in the two months.City officials estimate that about 300,000 people ride bicycles in Chicago, 1 of 5 Chicagoans.
On October 22, the Chicago Arts and Crafts Society
is founded at Hull-House. Within six months the group has 128 members. The first renowned clock is installed by Marshall Field’s November
26, at the corner of State and Washington. The current clock is from 1907, the design of Pierce Anderson of D.H. Burnham
1898In April the first electrically-powered run is made over the entire "L" system.
Five days later, the first
20 electric "L" cars are placed in service. The Chicago Telephone Company has 8,000 outlets in use, all of them dial
Chicago Produce Exchange, founded 1874, becomes the Butter and Egg Board which is a spin-off entity of the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) which
is re-organized in 1919, as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME). Five sailboats set out from Chicago
to Mackinac, the beginning of what will grow into the longestAnnual freshwater sailing race in the world.A Chicago made silent film named "Something Good - Negro Kiss," was likely
filmed in the South Loop
by William Selig. The film stars Saint Suttle and Gertie Brown, both well known at the time.
Herman Joseph Berghoff from Dortmund, Germany
arrived in the US in 1870. By 1887, he is,
with his three brothers, brewing Berghoff Beer in Fort Wayne, IN. His sales are so impressive at
the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition that he decides to open a
café in Chicago. The Berghoff Café
opens its doors on April 15, on the southeast corner of
Adams at State. When Prohibition is
repealed in 1933, Berghoff receives liquor license number 1 and sells the first legal beer in Chicago.
DePaul University is founded
as St. Vincent College.
Mary Margaret Bartelmes is the first woman judge in Illinois to be appointed public guardian for Cook
Edward Amet and George Spoor produce
the first pseudo-documentary and the first use of special
effects "miniatures" in a series of Spanish American War movies.
The Art Institute of Chicago
commissions Tiffany Glass & Decorating Co. to construct a dome with a
gold opalescent glass skylight
and a brass and crystal electrified chandelier for Fullerton Hall, a gift
of Charles W. Fullerton in memory of his father.
Chicago has about 400 bicycle shops
spread across the entire city.
The City Hosts a lantern-lit bicycle parade that includes German Wheelmen, Polish-American,
Cuban-American, even the Mayor
of Chicago, among thousands of cyclists. .
Tiffany Glass & Decorating
Co. decorates the Grand Army of the Republic Memorial Hall in the
Chicago Public Library in neo-Renaissance style.
To help meet the maximum
demand for electricity between 5:00 and 8:00 on winter evenings, the
world's largest storage battery
is installed at the Adams Street Station. National Biscuit Company (known as N.B.C., later renamed Nabisco) opens corporate offices
in the Home Insurance Building.
N.B.C. is the merger of 40 Midwest bakeries and the eastern New York Biscuit Company and the United States Baking Company resulting
in an amalgamation of 114 bakeries
within the biscuit industry. Its chief architect and first chairman is Adolphus Green, a Chicago lawyer and businessman. John Nuveen founds his own investment banking firm.
1899Giannini & Hilgart is founded and executes
Prairie School style windows for Frank Lloyd Wright
and others. Czar Nicholas II donates the funds for Louis Sullivan to design and build Holy Trinity Russian
Orthodox Cathedral (1121 N. Leavitt St).Chicago ranks thirtieth in the US in regard to recreation
and parks. The need for parks is paramount.Austin is annexed.Frank
Vernon Skiff founds Jewel in Chicago, as a door-to-door coffee delivery service.Oscar Lovell Triggs founds The Industrial Art League of Chicago. Triggs is dedicated
to the idea that the more sophisticated machines become, the more essential it was to have intelligently
designed work by skilled
craftsmen for it to produce. The League is discontinued in 1904, its function taken over by others.Alzina Parsons Stevens becomes the first probation officer of the Cook County Juvenile
Court.Championed by Lucy
Flower, Julia Lathrop and Jane Addams, the world's first juvenile court, opens in July. Located across the street from Hull House, it serves as a model for the
new social welfare approach that
emphasizes individualized treatment of cases instead of rigid adherence to due process, and probation over incarceration.Ernest Miller Hemingway is born July 21, in Oak Park, a part of Cicero. On August 3, Marshall "Major" Taylor, an African-American,
sets a world bicycle speed record scorching one mile in just over a minute and 22 seconds.Chicago sets an automobile speed limit of 8 mph.Mary Margaret Bartelmes helps establish Chicago Juvenile Court. Henry Gottlieb Eckstein, a part owner and partner of Cracker Jack,
invents the "triple proof package" or "waxed sealed package," a moisture proof
paper package to retain freshness. Previously sold in tubs, the new package allows Cracker Jack to mass-produce and distribute
nationally. The company is
reorganized in 1902 as Rueckheim Bros. and Eckstein. The box becomes an American icon. Red Star Inn opens in Old Town with access
from the Germania Club.
1900Chicago's population count of 1,698,575 includes more Irish, Germans, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Dutch, Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, Croatians, Lithuanians,
and Greeks than any other city in the US.The census counts 30,150 African Americans.Chicago has 60 breweries, most of which were German owned. The Public School census reports that every second child entering
first grade in Chicago has one or
both parents who speak German at home.Clara Barck Welles establishes the Kalo Shop, Chicago's premier
maker of hand wrought silver. Opening
of the Sanitary & Ship Canal reverses the flow of the Chicago River and helps start the cleanup of the lakefront and the river. More earth and rock are
moved during the construction of the Sanitary & Ship Canal than the Panama Canal.Nelson Max Dunning, architect, wins the first Chicago
Architecture Club traveling scholarship award.
In August, the Amalgamated Glass Workers International Association (A.G.W.I.A.)
is organized in Chicago.
By 1900, Chicago is the
manufacturing center of the nation's printed materials, cardboard boxes, live action films, farm machinery, furniture, roller skates, bicycles,
has 57 working drawbridges.Chicago
issues 300 automobile registrations.By 1900, Chicago has 60 breweries producing more than 100 million gallons of beer per year,
primarily for local consumption.
By 1900, Chicago has built
the longest cable and streetcar lines in the world.
On any given day in 1900, Chicago's streets are filled with some 10,000
horses and the automobile
seen as a breath of fresh air. L.
Frank Baum and William Denslow publish The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.It is an immediate success. Theodore Dreiser’s book, Sister
Carrie violates conventional morality and is not bought by the public.
Chicago’s stockyards expand to 475 acres. In 1900, Chicago employs 25,000 out of the nations total
68,000 meat packinghouse employees.Chicago boasts 65 candy companies.
Frank Lloyd Wright and others invent what becomes known as the Prairie
White Sox play their first game. About
1900, ice cream parlor owner Deacon Garwood begins serving sundaes on Sundays.About 1900, Shrimp de Jonghe is introduced by Belgian immigrant
Henri de Jonghe in the
Jonghe Hotel and Restaurant located on 43-45 E. Monroe just off State Street.
1901Queen Victorian of England, empress of India (since 1876),
dies. In March,
the first “official” Chicago Auto Show opens with about 65 cars on 58,000 square feet 1910Fingerprints at the scene convict Thomas Jennings of murder after he
had burglarized a house in
of the Chicago Coliseum, 15th Street and
Wabash. Admission is 50 cents. There
are about 15,000 cars in the USA. In a letter written to the Chicago Record Herald, Edward Paul Brennan suggests that the city use
State and Madison streets as the dividing
lines on which the numbering of streets could be based.He also suggested the odd/even numbering system. The city adopts his
suggestions in 1909.Charles
Walgreen opens his first namesake neighborhood store.Sophonisba B. Breckinridge is the first woman to earn a PhD in Political Science from the Univesity of Chicago. Selig Polyscopes makes the first industrial film for a corporate client, Armour
and Co.Automobile drivers
wore metal badges displaying their drivers license number.Marshall Field & Co. becomes the authorized agent for Tiffany in
Chicago.William Day Gates'
American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Company (near Crystal Lake, Illinois) starts to market Teco pottery.Chicago's first park, Lake Park (founded
1844) is renamed Grant Park. The
White Sox win the American League Pennant. Walt Disney is born on December 5 in a house at 2156 N. Tripp in
Chicago. Walt Disney's father built the house.
Automobile Association (AAA) is formed in Chicago.On March 27, the Chicago Daily News first uses the term the Cubs, alluding
to the team's, at the time
called the Microbes, many young, inexperienced players. On June 10, Americus F. Callahan of Chicago is
awarded patent number 701,839 for the "outlook" or
window envelope. By the 1930s the glassine window envelope had
become a standard business tool.Marshall Field's opens a new State Street store.Richard J. Daley is born.Cortland St. Bridge (1400 West at the Chicago River) is the nation's first trunnion bascule bridge.Frank Vernon Skiff partners with his brother-in-law Frank P. Ross,
naming their business Jewel Tea Company.
L. Frank Baum and William Denslow team up with composer Paul Tietjens and director
Julian Mitchel to produce
a musical stage version of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz under Fred R. Hamlin. The musical opens in Chicago as The Wizard of Oz, and then runs on
Boradway in 1903 and 1904 before it successfully tours the U.S. until 1911. On November 26, the site of Leroy Payne’s livery
stable is purchased as the future home of the
Chicago Orchestra. An ambitious fund-raising effort brings in 8,000 individual contributions,
raising a total of $750,000.The
Art Institute of Chicago opens its First Annual Exhibition of Original Designs for Decorations
and Examples of
Art Crafts having Distinct Artistic Merit.Henry Haven Windsor publishes the first issue of Popular Mechanics, showcasing
new scientific and mechanical
developments "Written So You Can Understand It." Samuel Insull installs the world’s first modern turbogenerator
at the Fisk Street Station.About
800 people have automobile licenses in Chicago.The Portland Cement Association, a non-profit, cooperation organization, is founded to promote the research and market development of cement in building and industry.Samuel Eberly Gross, a Chicago real estate developer and playwright
files suit claiming Edmond Rostand's
Cyrano de Bergerac plagiarized from his play The Merchant Prince of Cornville.
Both works featured big-nose
characters who helped men woo ladies. Gross wins a favorable ruling in U.S. federal court with Ronstand paying
one dollar in damages to Gross.Ray
Kroc is born in Oak Park.In
December, the City Council requires license numbers on automobiles.
The rollerrink "Coliseum" opens in Chicago. It quickly boasts
7,000 skaters per night.
1903Max Guler, a Munich, Germany trained china and glass painter, L. Holzchuh and Dennis S. Shanahan,
Studio. Henry J.
Niethart and Joseph E. Vogel found Temple Art Glass Co. The Church Glass & Decorating Co. of New York installs the Ivanhoe window designed by E.P.
York, in Bartlett Memorial Gymnasium, The University of Chicago. James L. Kraft moves to Chicago from Ontario, Canada, and starts selling
cheese. In 1916 Kraft patents
a method for making pasteurized process cheese and promptly sells six millions pounds to
the U.S. military during World War I.
Ventriloquist Edgar Bergen is born in Chicago. The city grants a new franchise for a larger underground tunnel, containing
an electric railroad, to the
Illinois Tunnel Company, which had bought the tunnel property from Illinois Telephone and
Telegraph. The locomotives ran on 240 DC flowing through wires seven feet overhead. More than
a million tons of freight are hauled through the tunnels in 1933.
Winton Motor Carriage Co. is
the first automobile showroom to open on what becomes Motor Row.
Will Ransom and Frederic Gaudy start Village Press in
Park Ridge. Village Press is one of the first
private presses in the U.S. and a popular meeting place for artists,
especially "Oz" Cooper who
designs the typeface Parsons. December 30, the Iroquois Theatre, north side
of Randolph, between State and Dearborn Streets
(since 1924, site of the Oriental Theatre, today the Ford Center for
the Performing Arts) designed in
1902 by Chicago architect Benjamin H. Marshall (patterned after the Opera Comique in Paris),
burns. Out of an audience of about 1900 people,
602 died. This is twice the number that died in
the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. As a result of this fire, fire alarms, push bar fitted outward-opening
exit doors that remain unlocked
from the inside, fireproof scenery and equipment, and steel stage
curtains are implemented nationwide. With its average temperature of 18.3°, Chicago records its coldest winter on record for the three-month meteorological winter period from December 1, 1903 to February
1904One of the most influential buildings of the 20th century, Unity Temple in Oak Park, is
Lloyd Wright. Riverview
Park, billing itself as the largest amusement park in the world, opens on 74 acres near
Belmont at Western Avenue.Austin-Wearern of Aurora and Chicago perfects the dump car which
help construct the Panama Canal.At Theodore Thomas' invitation, Richard Strauss, becomes the first-ever
Chicago Symphony Orchestra guest conductor on subscription concerts.The City's first branch library, the Blackstone Library, 4904 S.
Lake Park Ave., opens. It is designed by Solon Beman and paid for by Isabella Norto Blackstone in honor of her husband, Timothy Beach Blackstone. The A.C. Frost Company creates Ravinia as an upscale amusement park to lure riders
& Milwaukee Electric Railroad. Theodore Roosevelt is nominated for President by the Republican
National Convention in Chicago.
Chicago wins Olympic host city bid, but St. Louis steals it away.Robert Jarvis, one of America's outstanding modern metal smiths
establishes a shop in the Fine Arts Building on Michigan Avenue. For lack of interest, the great Ferris wheel of 1893 is destroyed in St. Louis after the Louisiana
Bakery and confectionary
workers unite, designating Chicago as headquarters for its union. By the 1940s the union has some 80,000 members nationwide. On December 14,
Theodore Thomas opens the doors of the new 2,566-seat Orchestra Hall,
designed by Daniel Burnham with a Grand
Dedicatory Concert. Ten days later, Thomas conducts the Chicago Orchestra for the last time, succumbing to pneumonia on January
4, 1905.Emil Brach opens
a storefront called Brach's Palace of Sweets; caramels sell for 20 cents a pound.
The University of Chicago Laboratory School is founded
by John Dewey, a pioneer educator.
Norwegian immigrant, Jens Andreas Paaschen, starts the Paaschen Airbrush Co.
1905The Chicago Defender is founded by Robert
S. Abbott and rapidly becomes the most popular
black newspaper in the United States. Performing in a cabaret at 2700 S. State, the Pekin Theater Company is
the city's first black
company. While lunching
on spaghetti at Madam Galli’s (18 E. Illinois), Chicago attorney Paul P. Harris first discusses what would become the Rotary Club. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
is founded in Chicago, June 27. Also known as the Wobblies, they favored self-management, a worker run shop with
worker elected managers. The IWW
reached a self-claimed membership high in 1923 of 100,000. On July 1, Chicago’s
climatological record keeping moves to 219 S. Clark.The
White City amusement park, billed as "the city of a million electric lights," opens at 63rd Street
and Cottage Grove Avenue.About 1905, Bunte Brothers pioneers the process of making
hard candies with soft fillings.20 runners register for the first Chicago Marathon with 15 actually starting the race and 7 finishing. Frederick Stock succeeds Theodore Thomas as music director
of the Chicago Orchestra, serving
his death in 1942. The Norge
Ski Club is founded by Chicago Norwegians who missed ski jumping and wanted to
introduce the unfamiliar sport to their new, very flat,
homeland. They build a jump facility in what
is now Fox River Grove.
1906Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle, a bitter denunciation of
the Chicago meat packing industry.
Sponsored by Chicagoan Charles R. Crane, Alphonse Mucha, a highly acclaimed Czech painter,
lectures in the fall term at the Art Institute. Marshall Field dies, leaving an estate of some $120 million.St. Scholastica Academy, an all-girls Roman Catholic school,
is built near the Benedictine Sisters Convent in Rogers Park. The Illinois State Highway Commission is organized.In August, a five-mile race from the Lakeview water intake crib to shore was won by H.J. Handy,
who finished in
just over an hour. In
October, the first tenants move into the new Marshall Apartments at the northwest corner of
Cedar Street and Lake Shore Drive. The nine-story
building contains eight apartments of 4,000 square feet each. Rent is an unprecedented $4,200 per year. Even before the land on which itis built is cleared, every apartment is spoken for. Bosnians establish Chicago's first Muslim benevolent society.Louis C. Tiffany and Co. collaborates with Edward Bennett
of D.H. Burnham & Co. on the Men's Grille at Marshall Field & Co. The Chicago Cubs win 116 games this season and the National League pennant.
Camille Saint-Saens makes his only appearance
with the Chicago Orchestra as soloist in his
Second Piano Concerto. The
Majestic Theatre Building (Shubert from 1945-2005, now LaSalle Bank Theatre) opens
and hosts Chicago’s first public pay
1907Cubs win their first World Series. They win again in 1908. Albert Abraham Michelson, a physicist at the University of Chicago, is
the first American to win
a Nobel Prize.The
Logan Medal of the Arts is an arts prize initiated in association with the Art Institute of Chicago.The Medal is named for arts patron Frank Grangher Logan, founder
of the brokerage house of Logan&Bryan.
Edward Elgar conducts the
Chicago Orchestra for the first time in his Enigma Variations, In the South, and the first Pomp and Circumstance March.Chicago records 1.3 inches of snow on May
Studios designs the arched and domed mosaic ceiling of the five-story atrium at Marshall Field & Co.When Garfield Park Conservatory opens, designed by Jens
Jensen and Schmidt, Garden & Martin,it is the nation’s largest garden under glass.Samuel Insull creates Commonwealth Edison Co.
Chicago has 116 licensed theaters, 320
in 1908, 606 in 1913.Chicago
police start a movie censorship board. It is very active over the years. It ends in 1984. The Green Mill, a jazz bar then known as Pop Morse's Roadhouse,
becomes important as a Chicagofilm
setting for on and off-screen action. Essanay Movie Studios, founded by George K. Spoor and Max Aronson (a.k.a.
Broncho Billy, the
movie cowboy) opens on West Argyle Street and quickly becomes a force in filmmaking, with Gloria Swanson, Wallace Beery and Charlie Chaplin
as its brightest stars. Essanay closes
its doors in
1917, as moviemaking shifts to California. A set of 16 teddy bear cartoon postcards is available free with ten sides from Cracker Jack boxes
through Rueckheim Bros. & Eckstein,
the Chicago based manufacturer of Cracker Jack. The Cliff Dweller’s Club is founded. On September 30, the Chicago Tribune
runs John T. McCutcheon's, "Injun Summer" for the first time. Inspired by a string of beautiful, warm autumn days and remembering
his youth in Indiana, McCutcheon
conjures up the illustration that becomes one of the most popular features in Tribune history. It was reprinted in 1910 and then annually from 1912 to
1908The Montgomery Ward Warehouse, a 717-foot long masterpiece of concrete construction, by
Richard E. Schmidt,
is completed along the North Branch of the Chicago River.
2 hours and 45 minutes to go the 73 miles from Evanston to Milwaukee on the Chicago
and Milwaukee Electric Railway.
Crime syndicate leader Sam Giancana is born in
Chicago, May 24.
Reitman founds Hobo College to give homeless a place to gather and hear lectures on
philosophy and literature.
An 8.5 mile roller marathon is organized by a group of roller skating
rink owners. Chicago’s
first public school exclusively for children with disabilities, Spalding High School, opens.State Representative Albert Keeney introduces a bill to
form a Forest Preserve District and Outer Belt Park Commission of Illinois. Public support is high due to the continued efforts of Dwight Perkins and the Saturday
Afternoon Walking Club.Selig
Polyscope makes the first Wizard of Oz film.Essanay Studio makes the first movie about Jesse James, The James Boys of Missouri.Selig Polyscope make the first movie adaptation of Robert Louis
Stevenson's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. It may be the first American horror film.Essanay Studio makes the first biographical film about a U.S. President, The Life of Abraham Lincoln.Chicago becomes the first city in the world
to require all commercially sold milk to be pasteurized.In Chicago, Victor Samuel Johnson establishes the Mantle Lamp Company of America, which began
marketing the Aladdin Lamp. The lamp quickly becomes the most popular kerosene mantle lamp in
America and, for a time, the world.Alva J. Fisher invents the first electric-powered washing
machine; named Thor, it is manufactured by the Hurley Machine Co of Chicago.Sears, Roebuck & Co. starts to sell mail-order homes. Chicago ranks first among cities with the most sideshow
freak in residence.Chicago
police log 68 220 arrests for the year, of which 40,875 are for drunkenness-related occurrences.
1909Chicago architects Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett unveil their
Plan of Chicago. It is radical
and many aspects are implemented. Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House, the quintessential Prairie School style building, is completed
in Hyde Park. The ten-hour workday law is passed for women.Chicago has 470 motion picture houses, one for every 5,350 people.
The Art Institute of Chicago
board founds Friends of American Art, a women's auxiliary.Willard Francis Motley is born July 14. He goes on to publish a
column in the Chicago Defender under the pen-name Bud Biliken and his first novel, Knock on Any Door, is published to wide acclaim in 1947 Humphrey Bogart stars in the 1949 film of the same
invents the drugstore lunch counter when she starts serving hot meals in her
husband's first drug store, 4137 S. Cottage Grove Ave.
(at E. Bowen Ave.), in Barret's Hotel. Californian Glenn Curtis flies a quarter-mile in forty seconds at the Hawthorne Racetrack
On September 1, Edward Paul Brennan's city street numbering system goes into effect.
Using the intersection of
State and Madison as 0, it gives 800 numbers per mile, odd-numbers to the east side of north-south streets and to the south
side of east-west streets, abolishes all duplicate
names, and gives broken-linked
streets a single name,Selig
Polyscope produces the first "two-reeler" film, Damon and Pythias.Essanay's Mr. Flip is credited with being the first "pie-in-the-face"
slapstick comedy.Tom Mix,
first western superstar, makes his debut in Selig Polyscope's The Cowboy Millionaire. Composer Sergei Rachmaninov makes the first of several guest appearances as conductor
with the Chicago Orchestra. A.
Stein & Co., famous for its Paris garters and later for the perma-lift "will never let
Englewood where Jennings killed the homeowner who
confronted him. Jennings left fingerprints on a freshly painted railing outside the house. Walter
Brookins is the first person to makes several passes over the city and lakefront in an airplane.
In April, Chicago has 5 straight days of measurable snow
and also 9 days with highs in the 70s, one day reaches 86.Nancy
Cox-McCormack moves to Chicago, and enrolls at the Art Institute of Chicago, where she studies sculpture with Charles Mulligan and then has a studio in the Tree
Studio Building. Chicago
Opera Ballet, the first ballet company in America, is organized.The White Sox play their last game at the 39th Street Grounds, losing to Cleveland, 7-2, on June
27. The Marx Brothers, at
the time known as "The Four Nightingales," move to Chicago and live briefly
at 4649 S. Calumet Avenue and then for 12 years in their own house
at 4512 W. Grand Avenue. 12,926 passenger automobiles and 58,000 horse-drawn vehicles are registered in Chicago.
65 Chinese women and 1,713
Chinese men call Chicago home.On
June 2, snowflakes are recorded in the Loop. The 1910 census notes future Olympian Johnny Weissmuller,
age 7 (Austro-Hungarian, BanatSwabian
by birth), lives at 1521 Cleveland, in the 22ndWard. He attends Lane Tech High School,
is a life guard at a Lake Michigan beach, and works as a elevator operator in the Illinois Athletic
Club (112 S. Michigan)The 1910 census counts only 108 American Indians in the city. On October 24,
the Everleigh Club at 2131 S. Dearborn is closed, followed in 1912, by the closing of the whole Levee district, officially ending organized prostitution
of North Shore residents purchase Ravinia Park in Highland Park and Found the Ravinia Company under the leadership of Louis Eckstein, a philanthropist.
On December 22, 21 firefighters
are among the 24 killed instantly in a blaze at Nelson Morris & Co. plant in the Union Stockyards.
1911Chicago hosts the first ever International Aviation Meet in Grant
Park. (America's first air competition
had been January 10, 1910 in Los Angeles, followed by meets in Boston and New York.) A.L. Walsh
set a world record when his Wright
biplane carried one passenger aloft for more than two hours.Chicago-area's first airfield, Cicero Field, opens July 4.Edward E. Ayer, a Chicago businessman, presents the Newberry Library his superb collection
(some 49,000 volumes) of historical source
material relating chiefly to the discover, exploration and colonization of North America and to the native races of North America, the Hawaiian Islands,
and the Philippine Island.On July 4
the temperature soars to 102°, a record
for the day. After its gala
opening Ravinia becomes primarily a summer venue for classical music.Emil Brach's Palace of Sweets produces some 50,000 pounds of caramels
Shaffer and John G. Shedd launch a bus company replacing horses used on the route to
the State Street Marshall Field store. It is incorporated as the
Chicago Motor Transfer Company,later
becoming the Chicago Motor Coach Company owned by John Hertz. Eventually Chicago Motor
Coach becomes part of the Chicago Transit Authority.Morton Salt starts adding an anti-caking agent, magnesium carbonate
to its salt.John Roeser Sr. opens Roeser's Bakery on North Avenue in Chicago's Humboldt Park neighborhood.
By 2012, Roeser's is Chicago's
oldest family-owned bakery maintaining its original location. The Infant Welfare Society of Chicago is established. Chicago produces more men’s suits than any other city in
the nation.Walter Burley
Griffin is the first Chicago architect to be awarded a commission from a foreign country when he wins the international competition for the plan of Canberra,
Australia.The state legislature
passes the Forest Preserve District Act of 1911. It is declared unconstitutional. Dwight Perkins and the Forest Preserve District Association remains
active. Chicago experiences
its largest 24-hour temperature plunge. Around 4 p.m. on November
11 the city’s
temperature peaked at 74° - a record for the date. Just
20 hours later, on November 12, the mercury had plunged to 13°
- a drop of 61 degrees!
1912Harriet Monroe founds Poetry: A Magazine
of Verse. It is the oldest monthly publication dedicated to verse in the English-speaking world.Bernard Carsten starts Progressive Windshield
Co. and develops bullet resistant automobile
windshields which sell briskly to mobsters in the 1920s. Chinatown is built by the On Leon tong.
Maxwell Street becomes an
official open-air market about six blocks long with a ten-cents-per-day
fee for pushcarts. Until the late 1950s, the markets flourish.
of Chicago’s water begins on the city’s southwest side. Known today as the Greater North Michigan Avenue Association (since 1942),
The Greater Central
is formed by business and residential community leaders to provide unity and vision
for the area.
The first film directed by an African-American is The
Railroad Porter, independently produced by
Foster Photoplay Company.
Preston Bradley (1888-1983) rejects the fundamentalism
of Chicago's Moody Bible Institute and all
Christian orthodoxy when he adopts what he calls "Christian Unitarianism"
and nurtures it at the
Peoples Church, 941 W. Lawrence Ave. He eventually spreads his words by radio to millions of listeners.
Prizes are added to each box of Cracker Jack.
On June 5, the first hearings are held in the city's first "auto court."
Chicago hosts the first Clay Products Exposition sponsored by the American ceramics industry.
Levee district is closed, officially ending organized prostitution in Chicago. Ravinia Park in Highland Park is bankrolled by Louis Eckstein.
Aida opens a series of lavishly cast summer operas. Within two-years Ravinia earns a reputation as America’s summer opera capital, presenting such
vocal legends as Lucrezia Bori, Edward Johnson, Giovanni Martinelli, Claudia Muzio, Rosa Raisa, and Tito Schipa. The series is brought down
by the Depression in 1932.Ellen
and Maurice Browne open The Chicago Little Theatre in the Fine Arts Building with a production of The Trojan Women.
Between 1908 and
1912, when it closed this branch of its mail order business, Sears, Roebuck & Co. sells some 3,500 automobiles.Gustav Goelitz's co. specializes in making candy corn in
its North Chicago factory (In 2001, the business is renamed Jelly Belly Candy Co.). Last seen November 23, Herman Schuenemann's "Christmas Ship"
is declared lost on Lake Michiganwith 17 people, on board.Born in 1846, Daniel Burnham, noted Chicago architect
and acclaimed father of the skyscraper, dies. Theodore Roosevelt gives his now famous Bull Moose speech in the Auditorium Building
where he is also nominated
for President of the United States by the independent National Progressive Party.
1913October 31, Frederick Stock, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra's
second music director, conducts
the Orchestra in the American premier of Arnold Schoenberg's Five Pieces for Orchestra. Arthur Andersen founds the Chicago-based public accounting
firm. William Foster
founds Photoplay Company; the first black owned film company with offices on
the South State Street “Stroll.” On the urging of the Juvenile Protection
Association, the city council takes actions on July 30
restricting entertainers to perform on the stage, outlaws the wearing
of tights and ends public dancing. The Drake Hotel brings suit and in 1916, the Illinois Supreme
Court declared the city ordinance
of Kathlyn filmed by Selig Polyscope is the first American "cliffhanger" serial. Known as the Post-Impressionist Exhibition, the controversial
Armory Show of New York comes to
Chicago where Chicago lawyer, collector, art critic Arthur Jerome Eddy sees paintings by Wassily Kandinsky whose work he subsequently acquires making his
the first Kandisnky's in the U.S.The Art Institute of Chicago becomes the first American art museum to present work by Picasso when it hosts the Armory Show.
Exhibited are seven paintings and drawings. Alice B. Clement, police star 3428, becomes Chicago’s first female detective."Policewomen" are officially appointed to work with women
and children.Chicago bans
The Miracle because the film depicts "murder, drunkenness and immorality, and is insulting to religion." In October, under the direction of superintendent Ella Flagg Young,
Chicago Public Schools, launch the country’s first sexual education classes. The program is shut
down June 1914.The Theodore Thomas Orchestra, know as such since 1905, is renamed
the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.Through the efforts of Dwight Perkins and the Forest Preserve District
Association a third law is enacted
by the State Legislature for the preservation of forests and natural lands.Chicago is on the western edge of the "White Hurricane,"
a massive storm that lashes the Great Lakes on November 9-11.
Chicago City Club hosts
a contest for the best “modern suburb" as part of its Housing Exhibition.
There are 22,136 autos registered in Chicago.
1914Margaret Anderson founds The Little Review, a
literary magazine. Arthur
Jerome Eddy’s book, Cubists and Post Impressionists is published. By early August, Europe is at war. A fence is erected at Diversey Beach (now Diversey Harbor)
extending into Lake Michigan to
separate male and female swimmers.In the March issue of Poetry, Harriet Monroe publishes Carl Sandburg's poem Chicago and seven other poems. The line, Hog Butcher for the World,...City
of the Big Shoulders. quickly becomes iconic. April 23 is opening day of Charles Weegham's Weegham Park (designed by brothers, Chicago architects,
Zachary Taylor Davis and
Charles B. Davis). Weegham Field is built of fireproof steel and concrete. Later,Weegham introduces concession stands and sells hot dogs and peanuts. It is known
as Wrigley Field since 1926.
Later, Wrigley Field is the first baseball
facility to have an organist, a center field television camera, and to allow fans to keep balls hit into the stands.The School Census of May 4, indicates that Chicago'sd total population of 2,437,526
consisted in part of 876,288
foreign-born and another 754,570 with foreign-born paretns. The Germans constituted the largest foreign group amounting to 399,977, 191,168 born in Germany and
another 208,809 of German parents. Polish 231,346; Russian 166,134; Irish 146,560; Swedish 118,533;; Italian 108,160; Bohemian 102,749; Austrian 58,483; Norwegian 47,496; English 45,714; Canadian 44,744;
and 242 Mexicans.Morgan Park, on the Far South Side, is annexed to Chicago
after residents had gone to the polls eight times (six times voting no and two times yes).Chicago holds its first aldermanic election in which women can vote.The American Licorice Company factory is built at Keystone
and Belden Avenues. Charles
Pajeau, a tombstone manufacturer, invents Tinkertoys in Evanston. "Sailor Jack" and his dog, "Bingo," become part of the logo
of Cracker Jack.In a series
of ads in Good Housekeeping, Morton Salt unveils its slogan umbrella toting 8-year old girl and its slogan-"when it rains, it pours." Helen Keller is the featured guest at a gathering of the North
End Club. Frank Lloyd Wright designs the Midway Gardens. A bond issue is approved to widen Michigan Avenue and build a new Michigan Avenue
On November 3, under the new law, spearheaded
by Dwight Perkins, the residents of Cook County
vote in favor of establishing a forest preserve district
whose boundaries would be analogous to the
boundaries of Cook County. The Forest Preserve District if officially and formally established.
Road is widened.
1915Barney Balaban (born in the Maxwell Street neighborhood) and Sam Katz open their first theater
on Central Park Avenue in Chicago, followed by the Riviera
in 1918. Balaban & Katz would createseveral other Chicago theaters before their style would
become a national phenomenon. Charlie
Chaplin shoots His New Job (Gloria Swanson has a small role) at Chicago's Essanay Studios.While working for Essanayfor about three weeks, Chaplin is paid
$1,250 per week, and is later rumored
to have lived in the penthouse of the Brewster Building, 2800 N. Pine Grove.The first successful newsreel is filmed and released by The Hearst-Selig News
Pictorial. The steamer
"Eastland" capsizes in the Chicago River on July 24, 812 drown. In 2015 two film clip, 55 and 30 seconds long are found in a Dutch film archive by Jeff
Nichols. Start of
5-year conversion of Lake Shore carriage drive through Lincoln Park to auto parkway.
Marshall Field’s opens their instantly famous Candy Kitchens.The White Sox purchase the contract of "Shoeless" Joe
Jackson from Cleveland for $31,500.George Mundelein (age 43) is named Roman Catholic Archbishop of Chicago.The Chicago Daily Tribune uses the term "Jazz" to describe music.
This may be a first.Garfield
Ridge and Clearing are annexed. The Chicago Orchestra presents the world premiere of Frederick Stock's Festival Prologue,
composed to celebrate the
Orchestra’s 25th anniversary. John Daniel (Sandor) Hertz founds Yellow Cab Co. in Chicago.Charles Weegham purchases
the Cubs from the Taft family
of Cincinnati. Renamed the Chicago Cubs, they start to play at Weegham Field in 1916.June 26, Speedway
Park, a two-mile, banked wood-planked oval opens near Maywood on Roosevelt Road with 80,000 people watch as Dario Resta shatters the speed
record for a 500-mile race, averaging
Stinson, 21 years old, known as the "Flying Schoolgirl" of Cicero is the fourth woman
in the US to earn
a pilots license and is the first woman to perform a loop. The Renaissance Society is founded at the University of Chicago to present
that eventually including Fernand Leger and Alexander Calder (1936); Jacob Lawrence (1944); Paul Klee (1945); Diego Rivera (1949); Hans Haacke
(1978); Kara Walker (1997); Kerry James Marshall (1998).The
American Medical Women's Association is founded in the Fine Arts Building on November
based Wander Co. opens its first US facilities to produce Ovaltine in Villa Park. George Wander and his son, Albert developed Ovaltine between 1863 and
1904. A mix of whole milk, fresh
barley malt and cocoa, Ovaltine used in hospitals as a tasty way to give patients vitamins.
1916Carl Sandburg publishes his Chicago Poems.The Chicago Cubs begin to play at Weegham Field, renamed Wrigley
Field in 1926. Supported
on 20,000 Oregon timber pilings, Navy Pier opens to the public on June 25.
At the time, the largest structure of its kind in the world, the pier is 3,040 feet long and 292 feet
wide with a3,500 seat Concert
Hall at its extreme east end.Frederick Stock and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra make their first set of
recordings for the Columbia
label in New York's Aeolian Hall.Sherlock Holmes, an Essanay Studio film, is the first feature-length movie to feature Arthur ConanDoyle's Sherlock Holmes character. The Electric Club, located on North Dearborn at West Calhoun, is
founded by Samuel Insull. July 26-30 average 91.3º, a 3-day heat record. Samuel Insull buys the Chicago and Milwaukee
Electric Railway and reorganizes it into the Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad. In 1919, Loop to Milwaukee service is introduced. January 25, 1963, at 10 p.m.,
locomotive 455 pulls into the yard to end run of Chicago, North Shoreand Milwaukee Railroad. Elder William Roberts founds the Chicago sanctuary of the Church of God in Christ.Lake Forest's Market Square opens. Later the National Trust
of Historic Places deems it to be the nations first planned suburban shopping center. 54,000 automobiles are registered in the city. Rue Carpenter, Alice Roullier and others found the Arts Club of Chicago.
Roullier heads the exhibitions
committee from 1918 to 1941 resulting in many artists firsts for Chicago.
There is immediate
uproar when the Sower, a seven foot tall male nude statue sculpted by Albin
is placed on the front steps of the Art Institute of Chicago. It is quickly removed.
Otto Schnering (1891-1953)
founds Curtiss Candy Co. By 1919 the company has its own
three-story factory that by 1921-3
turns out Baby Ruth, Butterfingers, and Polar Bar. During World War I the Germania Club renames itself the
Lincoln Club. Due to anti-German
sentiment, the Bismarck Hotel becomes Hotel Randolph, and Kaiserhof the Atlantic Hotel.
1917Wallace Rice designs the flag of Chicago. It has two stars representing The Great Chicago
Fire and the World's Columbian
Exposition of 1893. The Century of Progress star was added in 1933 and the
Fort Dearborn star in 1939. The two blue bars represent the two branches of the Chicago River.
center bar of white is the West Side; the narrower
white bars are the North and South Sides.
At least seven barber's homes or barbershops are bombed in a union dispute.
Named for his sister Mable, Maybelline
cosmetics, locateda at 4750 N. Sheridan Rd, later 5900 N. Ridge
Ave., is started by Tom Lyle Williams.
The Dil Pickle Club is founded
by John "Jack" Jones, a member of the Wobblies. The Club started
as several weekly forums at the Radical Book Shop on North
Clark. Membership quickly grew and
Jones found an old barn on Tooker Alley off Dearborn St. that he named the Dil Pickel Club.
Albert Schorsch, a 29-year-old real
estate dealer, sent carpenters and bricklayers to build 16 single-
family homes on the 6000 block of Grace Street in a style that
became known as the bungalow. In
a Chicago Tribune essay, H.L. Mencken calls Chicago “the most civilized city in the world”
and stood as “the
most thoroughly American of cities.” November 23, Jascha Heifetz debuts with the Chicago Orchestra
in Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto.The Slacker, independently produced by the Peter P. Jones Film Company, is the first feature film by an African-American. Saint Francesca Xavier Cabrini, M.S.C., born in Sant'Angelo Lodigiano,
Lombardy, Italy, known as Mother
Cabrini, dies in Chicago. December 22. She is Canonized
July 7, 1936 by Pope Pius XII. Mother Cabrini is the first citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church.
1918Illinois celebrates its centennial. Construction of statewide system
of hard roads approved by voters. One of the worst rail disasters in Chicago history occurs on June 22,
when an empty train slams into
a circus train, killing between 61 and 86 people.The Union Stockyards of Chicago are forced
to grant an eight-hour day and forty-hour week, wages
increase and overtime is paid.June Wayne, born June Claire, March 7, becomes
a famous printmaker in the 1950s, founding Tamarind Lithography Workshop in Los Angeles. She drops out of high school at 15,
holds various jobs and made
paintings of Depression Era scenes. She has her first exhibition in 1935 at a Chicago art gallery when she is 17.William Wrigley, Jr. hires William Veeck as the Cubs vice president
John Lloyd Wright,
a son of the famous architect, invents Lincoln Logs in Oak Park.
Sergei Prokofiev presents two American premiers with the Chicago Orchestra, conducting his
and performing as soloist in his First Piano Concerto. Ernest Poole wins the first ever Pulitzer Prize awarded for fiction
for the novel, His Family.September 5, 1918, the tradition of playing The Star-Spangled Banner at big league baseball games
is started in Comiskey Park,
during the 7th inning of Game 1 of the Cubs-Red Sox World
Great Northern Chair Co. of Chicago is founded. It specializes in making inexpensive bentwood
chairs, modeled after those
invented by Thonet in Vienna, Austria, for restaurants.
The patriotic touch underscored America's entry into World War I, which
had shortened the season. At 7.1", Chicago receives its largest ever Christmas Eve snowfall.
J. Drehobl, a glass-cutter for Flanagan & Biedenweg, with his brother Joseph, founds Drehobl Bros. Art Glass Co. The firm closes in 2006. Known as the Black Sox Scandal, eight members
of the Chicago White Sox are paid cash to lose
the World Series. Illinois ratifies 18th Amendment, prohibiting liquor and also the 19th Amendment, granting woman's
suffrage.Benjamin B. Green-Field and his sister Bessie Green-Field
Warshawsky, open Bes-Ben Shop that creates and sells witty and sophisticated ladies' hats.
Claude A. Barnett founds The Associated Negro Press (ANP).Trumpeter-bandleader Joe “King” Oliver moves to Chicago, continuing a migration of
New Orleans musicians
to the bigger, more prosperous city of the north.The first air delivery of an electric appliance occurred on March 11, 1919, when a plane flew from
Grant Park to the
home of Rufus C. Dawes in Evanston. It was a publicity stunt.
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.'s first commercial airship, the 186
-foot-long Wingfoot, is hangared at
the White City amusement park, 63rd Street and Cottage Grove Avenue. Shortly before
5 p.m. on
July 21, while putting on
a show and cruising over the city at some 1,200 feet, the Wingfoot caught
fire and plunged through the skylight of Illinois Trust
& Savings Bank at Jackson Blvd. and LaSalle
Street. Eleven bank employees and two blimp passengers die, 26 others are injured.
Within six hours,
the City Council adopts a resolution to limit flying over the city.
Grace Abbott becomes the first woman
director of Illinois State Immigrant's Commission. On July 27, Chicago's racial tensions come to a head when Eugene
Wiliams and four other black teenagers
from the South Side swim at the Twenty-Fifth Street Beach and stray into the "white" waters of the Twenty-Sixth Street Beach where a man throws rocks
and hits Williams who drowns. White police refuse to arrest the thrower. Blacks gather on the beach,
rocks are thrown, shots are fired
at police who are hit and killed. They return fire. For five days gangs of whites clash in black
neighborhoods . William Veeck becomes president of the Cubs.Based on a story by Oscar Wilde, Adolph Bolm presents
The Birthday of the Infanta for Chicago Grand Opera. Ruth Page stars as the Infanta. Music is composed by John Alden Carpenter
and sets are by Robert Edmond Jones. The Communist Party of the United States is founded in Chicago on September 1.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange is founded.
some fifty manufacturers of stained glass windows. Prohibition becomes effective January 16, the day before the Volstead Act becomes law. The African-American
population of Chicago reaches 109,000 and will continue to grow to 250,000
by 1930. In 1920, the Washington Park area had 38,076 residents,
15 percent of them African-American; in 1930, 92 percent of the Washington
Park population of 44,016 is African-American.
A Black Metropolis, also known as Bronzeville,
thrives around 35th Street and State St. where
the clubs were home to Louis Armstrong and Jelly Roll Morton. About 1,200 Mexicans live in Chicago. Woman's suffrage is established. Groucho Marx marries his first wife, Ruth
Johnson, in a Cook County judge's chambers.The Michigan Avenue Bridge is the first double-decker bascule bridge to open.George H. Williamson creates the Oh Henry! candy bar.
He sells it for 10 cents, twice the cost of most candy
bars. Extensive coordinated advertisement makes it a runaway
Veeck persuades baseball owners to name Chicago-based federal Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as commissioner, establishing a system for overseeing the
integrity of baseball that stands today.
passenger automobiles are registered in Chicago. Frederick Stock conducts the American premiere of Gustav Holst’s The Planets.
Don Roth’s Blackhawk
restaurant opens and introduces the Spinning Bowl salad.Holloway Candy Co. is founded, developer of Milk
Duds and Slo Pokes. In the
1920s landfill expands Lincoln Park from Addison to Lawrence Ave. to 324 acres. H. Teller Archibald opens the first Fannie May candy store at 11 N. LaSalle Street
(the chain closes and reopens in 2004). All Fanny May candies sell for 70 cent per pound.
Legend has it that the original: smoke-filled room” was in
Chicago’s Blackstone Hotel to arrange
the nomination of Warren G. Harding as Republican candidate
for president in 1920. 1921World Premier of Prokofiev’s The Love for Three Oranges
with the Chicago Opera Company.
U.S. premier of Mahler's Symphony No. 7 and world premier of Prokofiev's Third Piano Concerto
by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Throughout the 1920s, landfill from Addison Street to Lawrence
Avenue alters the lakefront and
enlarges Lincoln Park.Supported
by James H. Bowen, Calumet Harbor gets federal approval to become the city's deepwater port. The Calumet River and Harbor already handle some 80% of the
city's shipping tonnage and 73% of incoming ships. The
Chicago Theatre opens October 26, the first downtown theater built for Balaban
& Katz on State Street.
Opening day fare includes a feature film starring Norma Talmage, a stage show starring Buster Keaton and a small concert with the theater’s Wurlitzer organ as star.William Veeck leads baseball executives
in banning clubhouse gambling.On
June 15, Bessie Coleman, a manicurist at the White Sox Barber Shop, becomes the first woman of African-American descent to earn an international aviation license
from the Federation Aeronautique International and the first American of any gender or ethnicity to do so, but the first woman of African-American descent to earn an aviation pilot's license. The Tivoli Theater, with 4,000 seats the city’s largest movie
house, opens.The Morton
Salt Girl turns up her right foot.Ruth Blackwell joins Iannelli Studios.Curtis Candy Co. sells the nations first 5-cent candy bar, "Baby Ruth," forcing
others to follow. Legendary
Chicago ad man, Eddy S. Brandt writes the "Baby Ruth" slogan, "Everything you want for a nickel." Greek immigrant Peter George
Poulos opens a candy shop on Western Ave. When his son marries the love of his life, the
store is renamed after his wife, Margie's. Wrigley Field becomes the home of the Chicago Bears (until
1970). Merriel Abbott’s
newly formed dance school in downtown Chicago taught such soon-to-be stars
as Ginger Rogers and June Taylor (later the June Taylor Dancers). George Trafton, as the center for the Decatur Staleys (Chicago
Bears) 1920-21 and 1923-32, is the
first to snap the ball with one hand.On October 23, the Chicago Tribune reports the "newest wrinkle in housing," the Garlow, a 4-5 room, 20-foot-by-25-foot brick house with garage built on the back
of a standard city lot. A few are
built in the Chatham neighborhood on the 8100 block of South Calumet Avenue and the 8000 and 8100 block of S. King Drive. Chicago experiences its least snowy winter with 9.8" recorded.The city records an average temperature of 54.4º
for the year, the warmest year recorded
1922The Chicago Tribune announces a worldwide competition to design a new
office tower that ushers
the modern skyscraper. The
Association of Arts and Industry if founded in March.Seymour H. Perskey is born to Russian-Jewish immigrants in an area west of Maxwell Street. Seymour
becomes a major Chicago
philanthropist interested in Sullivan and Prairie School.Grace Abbott of Chicago is the first woman unofficial delegate to the League of Nations.Sybil Bauer, born in Chicago, attended Schurz High School, is the
first woman to break a men's
440 =yard backstroke in a time of 6:24.8, about four seconds ahead of the old 6:28 record. In all she broke 23 recods, mostly in backstroke. . Considered to be the first Modern church in the U.S., Chicago architect
Francis Barry Byrne designs St.
Thomas the Apostle Church, Kimbark at 55th Street. F. X. Zettler of Munich, Germany provides the windows. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, gives two lectures
in Orchestra Hall.
Armstrong moves to Chicago at the invitation of Joe “King” Oliver, and after a brief sojourn
to New York returns to Chicago to establish
himself as the first great soloist in jazz. The Karzas Brothers open the palatial Trianon at 63rd and Cottage Grove Ave. It opens with
social gala and continued a “no jazz” policy through the 1920s.
Andreas Pavley and Serge
Oukrainsky create Pavley-Oukrainsky Ballet, Chicago's first independent
ballet company. Chas. F. Lorenzen & Co., 521-523 W. Monroe St. claims
to be “America’s Largest Tile Jobbers."
Ivar "Pop" Coulson creates the "Malted Milk Shake" at a Walgreen’s soda
fountain. Per year Chicago distributes some 446 million pounds of butter, more butter than any other
in the nation.The first jungle gym, invented by Sebastian Theodore Hinton, is
placed on the playground of Horace Mann School (now Crow Island School). It is removed in 2003, but saved.
Barney Rosset is born into a wealthy Chicago banking family,
attends Francis W. Parker School where he published a newspaper called Anti-Everything. In 1951 he purchases tiny Grove Press in New York and soon publishes Jack Kerouac, William S.
Burroughs, Che Guevera along with such banned books as D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterly's Lover and Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer. On Arbor Day, Joy Morton, of salt fame,
plants 17 trees, then another 130,000 in the spring, on his
estate in Lisle, creating the Morton Arboretum. Morton's father, Julius Sterling
Morton had founded
Arbor Day in Nebraska, in 1872.
The Forest Preserve District encompasses 21,516
1923The Thompson submachine gun becomes a business tool for the first time in the hands of the South
Side Saltis- McErlane gang.
On March 1, the first issue of the Chicago Literary Times
appears on newsstands. On March 12, Chicago records its all-time low air pressure,
grandstand of Weegham Field is divided into three sections to expand the ballpark. Chicago has 9 butter making plants; 1,052 commercial bread baking
facilities; 38 pickle & jelly
factories; 43 sausage plants; 32 commercial ice cream makers.Robert Allerton buys Picasso's drawing Sketches of
a Young Woman and a Man and gives it to the Art Institute of Chicago. It is the Museum's first Picasso.Joe Colton of Chicago's College Inn Restaurant ignites
a trend among home chefs with thie innovative dishes like Chicken a la King and Lobster Newburg made with his signature chicken broth.Franklin "Frank" Mars develops
the "Milky Way," named for milk, not celestial bodies.The Arts Club presents "Original Drawings by Pablo Picasso," an exhibition for which Picasso provides instructions on how to mount
and display his work.
Willa Cather is awarded
a Pulitzer Prize for her novel, One of Ours. Lucien Harper editor-in-chief of the Chicago Defender, starts the Bud Billiken children's
page in the Defender.
The Club Aluminum
Utensil Co. is organized in Chicago. The marketing innovation on which Club
builds its business is a form of selling called the party plan.Chicago is divided into 50 wards. Laben Deardorff designs and starts manufacturing
the Deardorff camera. When the U.S. Postal Service issues a photography stamp in 1978, the Deardorff is on it. By the time L.F. Dearborn & Sons Photographic Equipment went out of business
in 1988, some 10,000 cameras had been made. Highly prized by photographers
and collectors, many are still in use.
Johnson-Reed Act establishes immigration quotas. There are approximately 20,000 illegal retail liquor outlets in Chicago. New speed limits are set for Chicago: top of 20 miles
per hour in sparsely settles areas, 10 or 13
in the city, less in turns.March 29 the Tribune Co., a newspaper, goes on the air with WGN (World's Greatest
Newspaper) radio. South Water Street Market is moved to a new 70-acres site at Ashland and 31st Street to make way for the world's first double decker roadway, Wacker
Drive.Alderman Stanley Adamkiewicz
(31st Ward) gets the Chicago City Council, on April 26, to officially change the name of Western Avenue to Woodrow Wilson Road. By June, the City Council
had repealed the name change.
Clarence Darrow successfully defends Richard A. Loeb and
Nathan F. Leopold, who had attemptedto create a "perfect" crime in the murder 14-year old Bobby Franks.Sybil Bauer represents the US at the 1924 Summer Olymbics in Paris
where she wins the gold medal
in th wome's 100-meter backstroke with a time of 1:23.2, four seconds ahead of the silver meadalist. She dies of cancer in 1927, age 23.
An estimated 1 million Chicagoans line the streets when Chicago
George Cardinal Mundelein returns from Rome with his cardinal's hat.The northern suburb of Area renames itself Mundelein and its University of St. Mary of the Lake is renamed Mundelein University. April 4 the Chicago Tribune reports that
Chicago has a new airport, Municipal. The Ford Motor Company opens a plant on Torrence Ave. to assemble Model
Federal Trade Commission abolishes the "Pittsburgh plus" steel pricing system that allows
steel to be produced in Gary, Indiana, for 20% less.WGN Radio broadcasts the Indianapolis 500, for the first time allowing
listeners to experience an event as it happens.Adolph Bolm helps establish and is first director of Chicago's Allied
Arts. The company is considered the first ballet theatre in the US. A record high of 105º is recorded on July 24.Union painters receive
$1.50 per hour, making them among the highest paid industrial workers
in Chicago. The Illinois Brick Company, Chicago’s largest brick manufacturer,
produces more than 700 millioncommon
bricks for the building boom that is underway in the city.
Bar Association’s “Christmas Spirits” revue starts. Jules Stein starts booking bands out of the Chicago office
of Music Corporation of America, whichbecomes Universal Pictures.Schutter-Johnson introduces "Bit-O-Honey," a taffy based candy bar.Sears Roebuck goes on the air April
10 and 11 with WES (World’s Economy Store) to test farm
radio broadcasts. The station officially airs as WLS (World's Largest Store), AM 890. On April 19, WLS radio airs the nation’s first National Barn Dance program
(billed as the Saturday Night Barn Dance), a four hour extravaganza of music,
comedy and down-home entertainment. One year later, Nashville's Grand O'le Opry starts. Sears sells WLS in
1928 to ABC (the Agricultural Broadcasting Company) a holding company set up by Prairie Farmer Magazine.Harry Shapiro
Jr. is born in Chicago. As the painter Harry Jackson he is one of the most promising
New York Expressionists. As a sculptor
of American Western imagery he becomes an acclaimed artist in the tradition of Frederick Remington and Charles Russell. His bronze statue of his friend
John Wayne is internationally
Walgreens designs the open view pharmacy, still in use today. Johnny Weissmuller wins the 100-meters and 400-meters freestyle and the 4x200 meters relay inthe 1924 Summer Olympics. In all, Johnny Weissmuller wins
5 Olympic gold metals and one bronzed in the 1924 and 1928 Olympics.Morton Salt Company of Chicago begins
distribution of iodized salt nationally.Zenith Radio Corporation (incorporated in Chicago, 1923) introduces the "Companion,"
possibly the first modern
portable radio. The first
event on the official opening day, October 9, of Municipal Grant Stadium
(named Soldier Field in
1925), is a track meet featuring 1,000 Chicago Policemen, reportedly drew a crowd of 90,000.Dion O'Banion (1892-1924), professional singer, pickpocket, safe-cracker,
and gang leader was assassinated
in his flower shop at 726 N. State by Mike Genna with the indifference of Al Capone and Johnny Torrio.
On November 22,
the first football game played in the Municipal Grant Stadium is Notre Dame over Northwestern.
Harry Houdini gives a lecture demonstration entitled “Can
the Dead Speak to the Living?” While living at 1710 N. Crilly Court, Henry Gerber co-founds the Chicago Society for Human
first gay-rights organization. Publishing two issues of its newsletter, Friendship and Freedom, it was short lived.
Island is considered for an airport.
1925MacLean-Fogg starts producing the lock nut. It prevents the loosening
of bolted joints.
Radio is granted exclusive rights to broadcast the Scopes evolution trial in Dayton, TN.,
the first trial ever on
radio, and Judge John T. Raulston alters the layout of the
courtroom to allow
the microphone to pick up all remarks. The Chicago Tribune reports that it
costs $1,000.00 per
day to maintain the long distance wires connecting the Tennessee courthouse and WGN in Chicago. The Bethesda Baptist Church at 53rd and South Michigan
is totally destroyed by bombing.Over 75,000 people attend Chicago's first rodeo, held in Grant Park stadium.WGN Radio forms its own Studio Symphony Orchestra. It is disbanded
the complete Chicago Cubs season hosted by sportswriter-turned sportscaster Hal Totten. On April 25, the first Woman's World Fair closes a successful eight-day run at the
Furniture Mart on North
Lake Shore Drive. Attracting more than 200,000 visitors, the Fair highlights women's achievements in art, commerce and industry, with more than 100
exhibitions of women in business and earned a net income of $50,000. The Fair was organized by Helen Bennett, manager of the Chicago Collegiate Bureau of Occupations and author of "Women at Work."Drew Ali arrives in Chicago and officially
registering Temple No.9, the Moorish Science Temple. By the end of the 1920s, there are 35,000 members in 17 temples across the
Midwest and upper South.Leonardo
Alanis, aka "Leo Najo," a dark complexioned Mexican shortstop, signs with the ChicagoWhite Sox. Leo Najo may be the first Mexican and person
of color ever to play in the big leagues. Chicago has 14,956 hospital beds.Roy Scherer Jr., better known as screen star Rock Hudson, is born in Winnetka.Chicago has 300,000 passenger vehicles registered. 18,000 horse- drawn vehicles are registered in Chicago.Arthur F. Woltersdorf, born in Chicago to a Prussian family, attends
lectures at the Technical University
of Berlin and translates two articles by Peter Behrens for publication in the American Architect, August and December, 1925.Dominick DiMatteo, a Sicilian immigrant, opens his first
store at 3832 W. Ohio and Avers Ave. The American Licorice Co. creates a licorice boot for a starving Charlie Chaplin to eat in the movie "The Gold Rush." Scala Packing produces packs and distributes roasted beef,
known everywhere around Chicagotoday
as Italian Beef sandwiches. Edna
Ferber receives a Pulitzer Prize for novel, So Big, about
Dutch immigrants in Chicago and
suburban South Holland.Archibald John Motley, Jr. wins the $200. Mr and Mrs. Frank G. Logan Art Institute Prize. for "A Mulatress" and the Joseph N. Eisendrath
Prize for "Syncopation" from the Art Institute of Chicago.
Symphony Orchestra, under director Frederick Stock, makes its first electrical recordings for
the Victor Talking Machine Company in their Chicago studios.Maurice Needham starts his namesake ad agency
1926Downtown temperatures were the city’s official readings until Jan.1,
when the official site switched
to Rosenwald Hall, University of Chicago. Designed by Howard Van Doren Shaw, the Goodman Theater opens. It quickly becomes one of
the most important theater
venues in the United States.Lubliner
and Trinz open the Congress Theater, 2135 N. Milwaukee. Seating over 2,500, it is built by Fridstein and Company in a melange of styles, freely combing Classical
and Italian Renaissance Revival.
Earl "Little Hymie" Weiss is gunned down on the steps of Holy Name Cathedral.George Cardinal Mundelein hosts the First Eucharistic Congress
of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. It is held at Soldiers Field. A million pilprims attend.Playboy Magazine founder Hugh Hefner is born in Chicago, April 9.Edwin Clarke designs Spanish styled Plaza del Lago in Wilmette.
It is the nation's second mall. Coffee Tycoon Fred McLaughlin is granted the Blackhawk’s franchise by the National
league for $12,000.
Sean le Noble from Le Noble
and Company tries to manufacture perfectly round chocolate-covered caramel candy, but fails, calling them "duds." Milton J. Holloway
takes over the production calling them "Milk Duds."The Lincoln Monument is added to Grant Park.Marie and Charles Vitner found C.J. Vitner. The company is formed as a
collection of retail outlets consisting
of five storefront shops selling candy, magazines, tobacco products and ice cream on the South Side of Chicago. In the course of the 1930s Vitner
developed bar snack foods, popcorn and potato chips, and develops into a snack food distributor. Vitner's is sold to California based Snak King Corp. in 2012.Chicago artist Frederic Clay Bartlett donates Picasso's
"The Old Guitarist" (1903-04) to the Art Institute.It is very likely the first Picasso painting in an American museum
and the first on permanent display.Eugene V. Debs, ran for president five times as Socialis, dies in an Elmhurst sanitorium. He is 70.Tiffany Studios designs the peacock entry doors
for the C.D. Peacock jewelry store in the Palmer House.Zenith
introduces the Model 27, the first mass-produced home radio using AC household current. . Maurine Dallas Watkins writes the play Chicago.
By the mid-1920s
most of Chicago's neighborhood streets are paved with brick, cement, or asphalt
and the bustle of automobiles begins its reign. In the
1920s, 120 miles of arterial streets are widened to accommonade cars.
1927Chicago has 350 movie and vaudeville houses. The McVicker’s Theatre, 25 W. Madison (demolished in 1984),
introduces Chicago to movies with
sound. Louis Armstrong temporarily breaks racial barriers by
leading a band in the Loop's BlackhawkRestaurant. The Blackhawk Restaurant on Wabash Avenue becomes one of the first restaurants
the country to offer a big band for dancing at dinner.Zenith introduces push-button radio tuning.Zenith first uses its famous slogan, "The Quality Goes In Before
The Name Goes On."A police drug raid nets some 2,000 ounces of morphine and
cocaine, and more than 300 pounds
of smoking opium, all of the finest grade.Alfredo Capitanini opens the Italian Village Restaurant.
Charles Lindbergh flies solo across the
Atlantic in 33 hours.
The Society of Typographic Arts (STA) is founded.
Mount Greenwood, on the far southwest side, is annexed.
On March 19, WLS radio
becomes the first radio station in the U.S. to broadcast Beethoven's entire9th Symphony (about 77 minutes). Robert Louis "Bob" Foss
is born June 23. He eventually wins eight Tony Awards for choreography.While
training off North Avenue Beach on a stormy day in July, Olympian swimmer JohnnyWeissmuller with his brother Peter encounter a sudden
storm that swamps the nearby pleasure boat "Favorite." The Weissmuller brothers rescue 11 people. The disaster kills 26 of the 71 people aboard.Chicago's iconic Buckingham Fountain is inaugurated to
Grant Park.For lack
of funds, Chicago's Allied Arts ceases. The National Restaurant Association moves its headquarters from Kansas City to Chicago and
with it, its annual Restaurant
Association show.Adolph Bolm becomes Ballet director of Chicago Opera.The Illinois Academy of Fine Arts
is established in Chicago. Its purpose is "to promote the production and sale of the works of living artists
of Illinois and for the encouragement of all the fine arts." J.F. Cornelius, representing the Uptown Civic
Music Association, is its first president. Richard Wright, later to write Native Son, arrives in Chicago. He is 19.
The world heavyweight boxing championship match between Jack Dempsey and
Gene Tunney, forever
known as "The Long Count" is staged at Soldier Field, on September 23,
before a crowd of 104,000.
Dempsey knocks Tunney down but goes to the wrong corner, losing five seconds before the referee begins counting; Tunney rises at the count of
9 and goes on to defeat Dempsey."Make the World a Better Place to Die In," is the slogan of the tenth annual
convention of the
Selected Morticians held in Chicago, October 4.
Myra Hess makes her Orchestra Hall debut on November 25.
of the Architecture School of Armour Institute, Loebl, Schlossman and Demuth,
design Temple Sholom, 3480 N. Lake Shore Drive. Over the years
an important collection of
stained glass windows has been installed, including designs by Karel Appel and Leon Golub.Amos 'n' Andy debuts, March 19, on Chicago's WMAQ radio.The Chicago architecture firm of Graham, Anderson, Probst &
White double-deck the original Wrigley Field grandsatnds down the third-base and first-base lines, add projecting ticket booths topped with clay tile roofs at ground level outside the park and make other
decorative changes . In
his only Chicago Symphony Orchestra appearance, Maurice Ravel conducts concerts including
his Sheherazade, Daphnis
and Chloe, and La valse. Journalists Ben Hecht and Charles McArthur write The Front Page.In May, Chicago Mayor William "Big Bill" Thompson closes
public schools, 10 to 20 each day, so
kids could attend Riverview for free, despite protests from outraged teachers and parent groups.
Leslie Townes Hope,
decides to go solo as Bob Hope, moves to Chicago. He finally becomes masterof ceremonies at the Stratford Theater. The Regal Theater opens at 47th and South Parkway (later
King Drive). It's Chicago's equivalent to New York's Apollo Theatre. Next to the Regal the Savoy Ballroom had opened in 1926. The opening of these two venues moves the heart of the black
entertainment district from 31st-35th and State to 47th. Richard Hess, incorporates Ace Stores
with his store at 5830 N. Clark Street as the flagship. By 1949 there are 133 Ace Hardware stores in seven states. Television arrives in Chicago when WCFL (W Chicago Federation
of Labor)uses its visual station,
W9XAA to broadcast the head and shoulders of E.N. Nichols.Ella Van Hueson, Miss Chicago, wins the Third International Pageant of Pulchritude
and Ninth Annual Bathing
Girl Revue, June 1928 in Galveston, Texas.Johnny Weissmuller wins 2 gold medals in the Amsterdam Olympics. Chicago’s Swift & Co. launches Peter Pan brand of peanut
butter using a process to keep the oil from separating developed by Joseph Rosenfield (Rosenfield starts his
own brand, Skippy, in 1933). Heath
Confectionery introduces “English Toffee.” Prophet Noble Drew Ali founds The Moorish Science Temple
of America in Chicago.
1929The Merchandise Mart opens. At 97 acres of floor-space it's the
world's largest building.
NBC wires its studio in the Merchandise Mart for television.Chicago Stadium opens. With its steel trusses that span 266 feet without support,
is the largest indoor arena
on Earth. On February 24, the Chicago Tribune reports
Municipal Airport handled more than 30,000 passengers and was home to 10 airlines that handled more than 1.6 million
pounds of airmail.
Milton Berle performs on a closed-circuit telecast in Chicago for the American Television Corp.
On St. Valentine's Day, seven members
of Bugs Moran's North Side gang are killed in a garage at
2122 North Clark Street.Drew Ali, founder of the Moorish Science Temple, dies in his home July
20, age 43. Comet
Model Airplane & Supply Company is founded by two Crane Technical High School students,
Samuel A. Goldenberg and Bill Biblichkow, with $5.00 in
opens a factory on the Far West Side to help meet demand for "Milky Way." Obligatory
school year increases from six to eight months in Illinois. The 3,500 seat, Art Deco style Civic Opera House, built by Samuel Insull, becomes the new homeof the Chicago Civic Opera, moving there from the Auditorium
Building. A private club, The Tower Club, formerly the Electric Club, moves to the 39th floor. Howell Company
of Geneva, Illinois produces the first tubular furniture in the US. Thirty-one years old Robert Maynard Hutchins, dean of
the Yale University Law School, becomes
the president of the University of Chicago.In the 1920s Chicago claims to have over 1,000 street gangs. Started in 1927, the straightening of the
Chicago River is completed.
1930The pin-ball machine began as the Whoopee Game and sold briskly under the name Ballyhoo
which in turn gave its name to the Bally Manufacturing
Co. Brothers, Paul
V. and Joseph E. Galvin begin to produce the first practical and affordable auto
radio and decide on the brand name, "Motorola."In his quest to create a two-for-a-nickel snack, James
Dewar comes up with the recipe for Twinkies, first produced on April 6 at Continental Baking Co., River Forest. Television station W9XAO airs its first drama, “The
Makers of Dreams,” starring Irene Walker.
Mars launches a peanut, caramel, and nougat bar named "Snickers."Designed
by Holabird and Root, the Chicago Board of Trade Building opens on June 9,
as the tallest building
in Chicago, 609 feet. A 31-foot, six-ton aluminum statue of "Ceres," the Romangoddess of grain and harvest, designed
by Chicago sculptor John Storrs, tops it.The name "Bronzeville" is first used by James J. Gentry,
a local theater editor for the Chicago Bee. Tsianina Blackstone, a Cherokee Creek operatic mezzo-soprano and Anna Fitzgerald, a Chippewa, found First Daughters of America, an American Indian women
organization. Guy Day, co-founder of the Los Angeles based advertising agency, Chiat/Day,
is born July 30,
in Chicago. Antoinette and Francois, cookbook authors and teachers,
open the Antoinette Pope School of
Fancy Cookery. On October 13, The Chicago Symphony Orchestra premiers Concert Music for
piano, two harps,
brass by acclaimed German composer Paul Hindemith; the piece had been commissioned by Chicago-born art patron Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge
Dunham founds Ballet Negre, one of the first African-American ballet companies in US.Walgreens creates store-brand items. Former School of the Art Institute student, Grant Wood,
paints American Gothic. Alexander’s Steak House opens in South Shore (Nicky Hilton flew buckets of their salad dressing
to the Anaheim Hilton when he married Elizabeth Taylor).
About 20,000 Mexicans
live in ChicagoThe
1930 census counts 246 American Indians in the city.The Shedd Aquarium and Adler Planetarium open.Designed by Holabird & Root, the Chicago Board of Trade Building opens.
WGN Radio airs, "Clara,
Lu, and Em" on June 16. The show, a sorority sketch, is created by three friends, Louise Starkey (Clara), Isobel Carothers (Lu), and Helen King (Em), all
from Northwestern University.
Colgate-Palmolive's "Super Suds" becomes the sponsor. A daytime show at first, it moved to evenings on February 15, 1932.
Irna Phillips creates the first American
soap opera, ”Painted Dreams.” It premiers on WGN on October 20.It's the story of Mother Moynihan
and her unmarried daughter.Jake
Lingle, a Chicago Tribune reporter who had been a middleman for those seeking favors from Al Capone and the city's police commissioner, is killed at the
Illinois Central train station at Randolph Street.The comic
strip Little Orphan Annie, debuts as a 15-minute Radio show on WGN. It goes national on NBC's Blue Network April 6, 1931.
The Adler Planetarium opens. Modeled after the planetarium in
Jena, Germany, it’s the firstplanetarium in the U.S.Adlai
Stevenson III is born, in Chicago, October 10. He is a U.S. Senator from
Illinois, 1970-81.US Highway
45 opens to traffic. It is the main thoroughfare between Chicago and Paducah, KY.
That changes with the opening of Interstate 57 in 1970. There are some 402,916 autos registered in Chicago.
1931Al Capone is convicted of income tax evasion
and sentenced to 11 years in prison. Sufferingfrom tertiary syphilis, he is paroled in 1939 and dies of pneumonia in Florida in 1947, age 48.
Historical Society moves into a 105,219 square foot Georgian Revival building
designed by Graham Anderson Probst & White along Clark
Street at North Avenue. Ferde
Grofé’s Grand Canyon Suite is premiered by Paul Whiteman Orchestra at the StudebakerTheater. To help lift the spirits of Chicagoans during what would become the Great
Depression, Chicago Mayor, Anton
Cermak commissions a band shell for free concerts. It is named for James C. Petrillo, president of the Chicago Federation of Musicians from 1922-1962 and
president of the American Federation of Musicians from 1940 to 1958 and a commissioner of the Chicago Park District from 1934-1945. The free concerts are an immediate success.Jane Addams wins Nobel Peace Prize.Katherine Dunham's "Ballet Negre" gives its debut performance at the annual Beaux Arts Ball. One of the numbers on the program, Negro Rhapsody
is well received. No engagements follow, and the group disbands.The Chicago Daily News sells WMAQ to NBC.A quarter of the nation's airmail is carried annually by airlines
passing through Municipal Airport.
Earl Carroll’s racy “Sketch Book” revue
at the Chicago Grand Opera is raided by police in the middle
of “Songs of the Moonbeams.” Thirty-one people,
including actor William Demarest, are hauled off
on obscenity charges. By the time a judge acquitts the group,
the notoriety assured a full-house- every-night run.Mitzi Gaynor (Francesca Marlene de Czanyi von Gerber) is born
in Chicago, September 4. Her film credits include Golden Girl, There is no Business Like Show Business, Les Girls, and in 1958, South
Ms. Frances Harrington,
a practicing interior designer, gives a series of lectures to interior design professionals that she then expands by founding the Harrington
Institute of Interior Design. When she retires in 1959, her former student Robert Marks assumes leadership
of the school. He adds many
classes and creates a professional advisory board. On Saturday nights, W9XAO airs the picture while WIBO radio broadcasts
the sound of football games.
Chicago has 7,500 horse-drawn milk wagons.
1932Industrial Chicago is hard-hit by the Depression. Some 750,000 people
are unemployed out of a
of 3,236,913. Almost 400,000
automobiles are registered in Chicago.Bob Walters and Herb Eldean open Twin Anchors. Both are members of the Chicago Yacht Club. In his nomination acceptance speech for President by the Democratic
National Convention in Chicago,
Franklin Delano Roosevelt states: " I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people." Judge Henry Horner (1878-1940) is elected the first Jewish Governor of Illinois.
At 28.6°, March is the
coldest month on average ever recorded in Chicago. Babe Ruth’s alleged “Called Shot” occurs during the World Series
in Wrigley Field.African-American
composer Florence Price completes her Symphony in E Minor.In August, the city's first outdoor Art Fair is held in Grant Park.
“Scarface: The Shame of a Nation,” with contributions by ex-Chicago newspaperman Ben Hecht, etches the link between Chicago
and mobster in the movies. Mars launches the "3 Musketeers" barAfrican-American Marshall "Major"
Taylor, former bicycle world speed record holder, dies in Chicago, forgotten. He is burried in a paupers
grave at the Mount Glenwood Cemetery. Chicago
artist John Flanagan (1865-1952) designs the front and backsides of the U.S. 25 cents coin. Documentary Film Group, Doc Films, is founded at the University
of Chicago. The
Chicago Historical Society opens its eight dioramas exhibiting the history of Chicago.
Arnold William Haarlow, Jr. (1913-2003), is one of the
first basketball players anywhere to shoot
the ball with one hand. In the last basketball game of the season against Morgan Park High School,he took a one-handed set shot to become the first Chicagoan
to score more than 50 points in a game.
The Reverend James Cleveland
is born in Chicago. In 1968, he founds the Gospel Music Workshop
Convention becoming a dominant force in gospel music.
Cleveland's recordings of Peace Be Still, Lord
Me, Father, I Stretch My Hands to Thee, and
The Love of God are gospel standards.
Century of Progress Exposition opens with light from the star Arcturus. The Exhibition draws 48.8 millions of visitors before it
closes November1, 1934. Its lakefront composition is inspired by the Burnham Plan. The all-glass "House of Tomorrow"
by Chicago architects Keck
& Keck draws much attention. The world's first aerial tramway offers rides at the Exposition
and Kraft’s "Miracle
Whip" is introduced as the “new food triumph”. Kraft "Caramels" are also introduced.An audience of 125,000 people see the play "Romance of the
People," performed in Soldier Field.George W. Bay opens a bakery in the Loop to sell his muffins, Bays English Muffins, with orange marmalade.
At 8:30pm on December 6, Illinois officially repeals the National
Prohibition Act (aka Volstead Act.The "Cape Cod Room" in the Drake opens with liquor license number 2.On June 15, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Frederick
Stock, premiers Froence Price's Symphonie in E Minor. It's the first composition by an African-American woman to be played by a major orchestra. The "Empire Room" supper club opens in the Palmer
House.After the repeal of
the 18th Amendment, 3.2 percent draft beer is introduced at Wrigley Field. Prima is the first brand sold, followed by Pabst Blue Ribbon.
Initiated by a major gift from Julius Rosenwald, The Museum of
Science and Industry opens, June 19,
to the public in the former World's Columbian
Exposition Palace of Fine Arts Palace of Fine Arts in Jackson Park. The Illinois General Assembly enacts general sales tax of 2 per cent.Designed by Carl Brioschi (1879-1941) and dedicated on
Italian Day, Chicago's Italians donate a Monument to Christopher Columbus at A Century of Progress, Chicago's second World's Fair. It now stands in Grant Park, corner of South Columbus Drive and
Schuenemann, affectionately known as the "Christmas Tree Lady," dies.Katherine Dunham opens her first dance school, the Negro Dance Group. The evening of June 15, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra presents an evening of “Negro Music and Musicians,” featuring Roland Hayes.The American Legion veteran's organization celebrates the
Fourth of July with fireworks. It becomesa Chicago tradition. The fireworks are so popular that in 1935 they are moved from the lakefront to Soldier Field. On July 6, billed as “The
Game of the Century,” Comiskey Park hosts the first All-Star Baseball Game.Kim Novak is born. She and her sister, Arlene, grow up at 1910
S. Springfield, and after high school move to 2045 N. Sayre Avenue.Bruna Cani opens Bruna's Restaurant on South Oakley Avenue. Duke Ellington’s Band performs
in the first Bud Billiken Parade.With Pilgrim Baptist as his base, Thomas A. Dorsey, soon to be known
as the “Father of Gospel”, founds the National Convention of Gospel Choirs and Choruses.The I&M Canal is officially closed and filled in within city
limits. Sally Rand is arrested
for public indecency at the Chicago Theatre four times in one day.Ruth Page choreographs La Guiablesse, based on
a Martinique legend about an evil spirit, and features Ruth Page, Katherine Dunham, Talley
Beatty, and an all-black supporting cast. Quincy Jones, one of the most prolific and successful figures
in contemporary pop, is born in Chicago.Rick Cluchey, the Beckett interpreter and playwright is born December 5.
1934Bank robber John Dillinger is killed outside the Biograph Theater after a show of Manhattan
William Dawson completes his Negro Folk Symphony. Arnold Schoenberg makes his only appearance at Orchestra Hall conducting
his Transfigured Night. On May 10, a relative humidity of 13% is recorded, the lowest to
date in Chicago.Katherine
Dunham revives her company, Ballet Negre, with students from the school, the
Negro Dance Group. They
appear at the Century of Progress, Chicago's World's Fair.The Roller Derby makes
its world debut at the Chicago Coliseum. The sport is invented by Leo Zeltzer, a sports promoter
for the Chicago Coliseum.Jane Byrne, future mayor of Chicago, is born in Chicago, May 24. On May 31, the
earliest over 100º, actually 102º is recorded in Chicago, Midway Airport.The Chicago Blackhawks win the Stanley Cup.Joe Louis makes his professional boxing debut on July 4, against Jack Kracken in the Bacon
Casino on the cities south side. Louis earns
$59 for knocking out Kracken. Louis goes on to win all 12 of his professional
fights this year. A July 18-25, heat
wave reaches an unofficially temperature of 109º on July 23, at Midway
highest observed temperature is 105º as measured at the University of Chicago on July 24. Raymond
Loewy designs the Coldspot Super Six refrigerator for Sears Roebuck & Co.Elijah Muhammed moves the Nation of Islam headquarters to the South
The first College
All-Star Game, brainchild of Tribune sports editor Arch Ward, beginning a football-season-opening tradition between the previous year’s
NFL champion and a college all-starteam that will last until 1976, is held at Soldier Field.Chicago Mayor Edward Kelly orders that scenes showing mob violence be
stricken from movies and newsreels
because it is "not educational' and has a "bad effect on immature minds." The first Billy Goat Tavern opens. It's across the Chicago Stadium,
now United Center. The Japanese
Garden is opened on the Wooded Island around the 1893 replica of the Ho-o-den
Pavilion as an attraction to visitors attending the Century of
Progress World's Fair. The Ho-o-den Pavilion is destroyed by fire in 1944. The garden survives today, having
been renovated in 1981, and in 1992 officially renamed Osaka
Garden to honor Chicago's Sister City.Walter
"Lottie" Zagorski, a transvestite, opens Lotties Pub in Bucktown, with a gambling operation in
the basement that featured horse racing, poker, and strippers.The
city's several park agencies are consolidated to form the Chicago Park District.
Fashion Instruction begins at the School of the Art Institute
under the direction of Cornelia Stecki, an in-house designer for Marshall Field’s whose costumes in a parade celebrating the
1933 Century of Progress
World’s Fair caught the eye of the school’s dean. On 27 December police close the "Star and
Garter" (815 W. Madison), an old burlesque house famousfor nude girlie shows. The same day police
also close "1230" (1230 N. Clark) and "The Rosal" (1251 N. Clark), both women's cross-dressing clubs.
1935Katherine Kuh opens the only gallery in Chicago (540 N. Michigan) specializing
in works by
artists. Some local
artists form an association called “Neoterics” to designate what is fresh and new
in art, and to facilitate exhibitions. The first Heisman Trophy is won by Jay Berwanger of the
University of Chicago. On
July 1, The Chicago Symphony under Eric De Lamarter opens a new municipally
sponsoredseries of summer
orchestra concerts at a band shell in Grant Park. The free lake front series
eventually becomes the Grant Park Music Festival.The Polish Museum of America is established as the "Museum
and Archives of the Polish Roman Catholic Union in America." Miecislaus Haiman is its first curator, archivist and chief librarian.
Chicago has a total of 358 motion-picture theaters; the largest,
the Uptown, seats 4,307.
20,000 people show up at the Chicago Coliseum to witness the world premiere of the
Transcontinental Roller Derby.Sol and Sam Polk open Central Appliance and Furniture on the West
Side. Finnie’s Ball,
an annual black drag ball begins in a basement bar near 38th and Michigan. It continues into the 1960s at the Chicago Coliseum (1653
Restaurant opens (closes 1983) and immediately becomes the place for ladies who lunch.In its seventh week at the Selwyn Theater, the play "Tobacco
Road" is shut down by Mayor Edward Kelly for its "obscenity" and "filth." He and his wife saw it and didn't like it. The courts
upheld his opinion.In Chicago,
the Illinois chapter of the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration
is set up in
August, headed by Increase Robinson. The Painting Division is under
the direction of Norman MacLeish; the Sculpture Division is headed
by Edouard Chassing and assisted by Peterpaul Ott. A design workshop is headed by
John Walley. Leo Burnett opens his namesake ad agency. Paul J. King starts the city’s first black-owned produce firm. Keyboardist Ramsey Lewis is born in Chicago. He studies
classic piano at the Chicago College of
Music and De Paul University before he has great commercial success with pop-jazz instrumentals.Richard Hunt is born September
12. He becomes a world renowned sculptor. The School of the Art Institute holds its first fashion
1936The nation's first blood bank is opened in Cook County Hospital. Solo Cup Company begins producing disposable paper cups,
containers and straws.The
city bans cigarette vending machines.
Formed as the Ravinia Festival Association, Ravinia becomes the summer residence of the
Chicago Symphony Orchestra.The McCook Outlaws, a motorcycle club, is organized.The Society for Sanity in Art is founded by Josephine Hancock Logan.
Its members strongly oppose
all forms of modern art, including cubism, surrealism, and abstract expressonism. The Society gives out awards to artists who meet its standards of "sanity";
these awards include the Logan
Medal of the Arts. Richard
Wright founds the South Side Writers Group.From July 6-17, Chicago experiences a heat wave of 12 straight
days above 90°, 8 of them above
Airport records 11 days above 100°.The Chicago Board of Trade launches soybean contracts.Robert Johnson writes Sweet Home Chicago. It is recorded in San
Antonio, TX, November 23. Walter E. Olson opens his 22-acre theme park at Pulaski and Diversey to entertain
children of parents who
were at Olson Rug and Carpet Co.Philip Maher designed Illinois Automobile Club, 2400 S. Michigan, opens. Shaped like a hotdog, Oscar Mayer introduces
the first-ever food-themed car – the Wienermobile.
1937One third of all radios produced in the United States are
made in Chicago.
Illinois passes the eight-hour workday law for women. Chicago has 3,629 miles of streets and 1,370 street names. On May 30, 10
people are killed during the Republic Steel South Chicago plant strike when a sticks is thrown and police open fire. Ten strikers are killed by police
bullets, 30 others are wounded. The police suffered some bruises.Josephine Hancock Logan publishes a book entitled "Sanity in
average head of beef cattle weighs 899 pounds and yields 470 pounds of meat.Jim and Eleanor Riley open a general store next to a movie theatre
in the Chatham neighborhood; the
store evolves into Riley's Trick Shop. Up to 125,000 people are said to be at Soldier Field for an Austin-Leo High School football
game.Ivy is planted in Wrigley
Field's outfield.The head
and shoulders of Anna Short Harrington is registered as a trademark that updates the look of "Aunt Jemima," a pancake mix mass produced by
Quaker Oats.When Joe Louis
meets Jim Braddock in the heavyweight championship fight at Comiskey Park, June 22, both
men wear trunks designed and made by Chicagoan Sammy Frager.
Kraft introduces "Macaroni & Cheese." Some 50 million
boxes are purchased during WW II because shoppers could get two boxes for one food stamp ration.Recent immigrant to Chicago, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, establishes the New Bauhaus. It closes in 1938
and reopens as the
School of Design.As
part of a suite called Primitive Rhythms, Katherine Dunham premieres Rara Tonga at the Goodman
Theater.Replacing the outfield stands of Wrigley Field, Holabird &
Root, a Chicago architectural firm, add new bleachers, arranged in a boomerang-chaped configuration.
Singer/songwriter Tom Paxton is born in Chicago. Inspired by the radio ministry of Preston Bradley of the
Peoples Church of Chicago, Irna Phillips writes The Guiding Light. It begins as a 15-minute radio drama and later moves to television.In August, Vocalion Records releases Robert Johnson's Sweet
Culinary Institute is established. With Mayor Edward Kelly and President Franklin Roosevelt presiding, the Outer Drive Bridge (Lake Shore Drive Bridge) opens on October
from November 12 to November 20 is a 9-day series
of consecutive colder days, with daily highs decline 32º during this period.The Chicago Housing Authority is created.
1938Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, the last director of the Bauhaus, arrives
in Chicago with the responsibility of directing the school of architecture for Armour Institute of Technology. In the mid-1940s, he
starts to design its new
campus, named the Illinois Institute of Technology.Al's Italian Beef starts as a street stand in Little Italy, then moves to a storefront
at 1079 West Taylor.Katherine
Dunham is appointed director of ballet for the Federal Theatre, a part of the
WPA that centers dance in one company.
The company was unique in its mixing of ballet, modern and jazz.Katherine Dunham choreographs and produces
her first full-length ballet, L'Ag'Ya at the Federal Theater.
A National Confectioners
Association committee headed by Otto Schnering coins the national campaign phrase: "candy is delicious
food - enjoy some every day."The first Chicago Candy Show is held in the Hotel
Sherman. Eighteen-year-old Mary Jeanne Drakeis
elected "Sweetest Girl." Paul Hindemith makes his American conducting debut with
the Chicago Symphony Orchestra on
March 3. The Chicago Blackhawks win the Stanley Cup.Hotelier Ernie Byfield opens the Pump Room inspired by the 18th c. one operating
in Bath, England.Contralto
Margery Mayer Voutsas, a Senn High School graduate, is hired as feature soloist on WGN radio as part of the new Mutual Broadcasting System, where she
sings opera and classical programs. Ms. Voutsas sings with the Chicago City Opera Company production as Nicklausse in "The Tales of Hoffmann." After a hobby show at the Hotel Sherman, The National Button Society is founded
by Gertrude Patterson and
Otto C. Lightner in Chicago.Marion
Mahony Griffin paints a mural, Fairies, in Armstrong School.In October, works by Chicago artists
in the Federal Art Project are exhibited in the Art
galleries of the Art Institute are devoted to WPA works under the title, "Art for the Public."
Harnett’s “Homer in the Gloamin” occurs during the National League pennant in Wrigley Field.
Root Beer is named by Ely Klapman for his dad who had experimented with making high quality root beer.
1939The Proviso Yards near Melrose Park, operated by the Chicago
& North Western Railroad, are the
world’s largest. The Yards cover 960 acres and have a daily capacity of 4,000 cars on 59
tracks.Ray Manzarek is born on Chicago's Polish South Side. He
eventually attends St. Rita H.S., graduates from De Paul University with a degree in Economics, attends UCLA Film School,
1962-65 and meets Jim
Morrison with whom he founds the Doors in 1965. Manzarek dies
May 20, 2013. The
National Button Society holds its first show in Chicago.
Violinist Isaac Stern makes his debut with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, performing Sibelius’s D minor violin concerto.Edited by Ruth Berolzheimer, The American Woman's Cookbook
is published by Consolidated Book Publishers for the Culinary Arts Institute. At over 800 pages, it may be the first cookbook to use four-color printing for its photography. By 1943, 1 million
copies had been sold. Berolzheimer served as director and editor of many cookbooks published by the Culinary Arts Institute from 1938-1949.Katherine Dunham and Dance Company perform Tropics
and Le Jazz "Hot" in the College Inn Panther Room at the Hotel Sherman.Zenith introduces the first all-electronic TV station.Rudolph Weisenhorn paints a cubist inspired mural, Contemporary
Chicago, in Nettlehosrt School.Willard Motley, Peter Schenck, and Alexander Saxton found Hull-House Magazine.Ed Paschke is born June 22.
George Cardinal Mundelein
is the first Chicago Cardinal to vote in a Papal election. Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer is created by Chicagoan
Robert L. May, a Montgomery Ward copywriter, as a Christmas giveaway storybook for Montgomery Ward stores. It is an immediate
success. Johny Mark, May's
brother-in-law and a songwriter developed the lyrics for the musical version recorded by Gene Autry in 1949. Henry Blommer Sr. and his brothers Aloysius and Bernard open Blommer Chocolate that
its chocolate for wholesale distribution, quickly becoming the
largest commercial chocolate
manufacturer in the United States. George Cardinal Mundelein dies October 2. Many thousands pay their respects at Holy Name Cathedral.
1940Motorola Company develops the world's first hand-held, two-way radio, better known as the
walkie-talkie. Jack Brickhouse begins to broadcast Cubs
and White Sox games, some 5,300 games, until he
retires in 1981.
Leon Finney, Sr. from Mississippi, opens his first restaurant, Leon's BBQ, on East
Garfield in Bronzeville.
The Loop is whitened by a 2.2-inch snowfall on May 1-2.
Midway airport receives 3.7 inches of snow. Grossing a whopping $4,000 in its first season, the world's first Dairy Queen opens in a storefront at
501 N. Chicago, in Joliet, IL on June 22.
Keyboardist Herbie Hancock is born in Chicago.
Chicago has 425 Kosherr butcher shops, many of them in Lawndale.
The comic strip "Invisible Scarlet O'Neil,"
drawn by Russell Stamm, is unveiled in the Chicago Times,
June 3, 1940.
The first Amercain Negro Exposition is held at the Chicago Coliseum, July 4 to September 2.
An estimated 80,000 to 100,000 bungalows were built
in Cook County since 1910. The
Society of Contemporary American Art is created at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Theodore Karavidas opens Marie's
Pizza in the Mayfair neighborhood, 4127 W. Lawrence Avenue. Starting June 30, the Chicago Tribune syndicates
Dale Messick’s "Brenda Starr" cartoon. Starr goes national five-days after VE Day, May 1945.Armour Institute of Technology and Lewis Institute merge as Illinois
Institute of Technology.Eleanor
Roosevelt is the first first lady to speak at a convention, delivering a stirring speech to a fractured party in Chicago. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, is nominated for an unprecedented third
term and says: "This is no ordinary time. No time for weighing anything except what we can
do best for the country as a whole, and that responsibility rests on each and every one of us as individuals."Raquel Welch is born September 5, in Chicago to Armando Carlos Tejada Urquizo and
Josephine Sarah whose family
origins date back to the Mayflower.
On October 24, Frederick Stock conducts
the Chicago Symphony in its first performance of the First Symphony by John Alden Carpenter, a native of Park Forest,
Illinois. The Orchestra presents
the world premier
of Igor Stravinsky’s Symphony in C, commissioned to celebrate the Orchestra’s
50th anniversary.The South Side Community Arts Center opens.Candy impresario Sol D. Leaf introduces "Rain-Blo" gumballs that came in different colors. The mercury tops 63° at 11 a.m. on November 11, as a
cold front moves in from the southwest on wind gusts of 65 mph plunging Chicago's temperature to 16° by 7 a.m. on November
12.For the American Negro Light Opera Association of Chicago, Katherine
Dunham stages and choreographsTropical
Pinafore, a takeoff on Gilbert and Sullivan. Richard Wright publishes his novel, Native Son that opens to critical acclaim in New York City inMarch and then in November 1941, to a standing room only crowd
in Chicago's Studebaker Theater.November brings 14.8" of snow to Chicago, a record for the month. On Friday,
December 13, Life photographer William Shrout attended a gathering spread across 13 tables, each of 13 people, of the Merchants & Manufacturers
Club of Chicago.
1941Arturo Toscanini makes his only appearance
with the Chicago Symphony. Bela
Bartok performs his Second Piano Concerto as soloist with the Chicago Symphony.
Major Lance is born in Chicago. He helps
establish what becomes known as the Chicago soul sound.The Illinois Legislature creates the Chicago Medical Center District. Jayne Walton Rosen was the “Champagne
Lady” of The Champagne Music of Lawrence Welk, the house orchestra at the Trianon Ballroom until early 1951, attracting some 7,000 people per show.
Gene & Georgetti’s
Steak House Restaurant opens in River North.The Morton Salt Girl gets yellow clothing and hair.Zenith introduced the detachable "Wavemagnet" loop antenna in
Blazonczyk Sr. is born in Chicago. Eventually he becomes a Grammy-winning polka musician.The United States enters World War II following the bombing
of Pearl Harbor on December 7.The Auditorium Building, closed since 1929, is taken over by the city of Chicago
and used as a servicemen's
center, complete with bowling alleys!
1942Nelson Algren writes Never Come Morning, followed in 1949
by The Man with the Golden Arm, and in 1951 by Chicago: City on the Make.Mayor Edward J. Kelly bans Nelson Algren's book, Never Come
Morning from the Chicago Public Library. The ban remains in effect for decades over the massive outcry
by Chicago's Polonia. Known
as the “Father of Gospel”, Thomas A. Dorsey, former bluesman and Paramount Record agent is choir director of Pilgrim Baptist Church, and is named
director of the National Baptist Convention Choir. In 1931, Dorsey had written Precious Lord, Take My Hand, and
founded the Ebenezer Baptist
Choir. Dorsey writes many other memorable songs including, Peace in the Valley. Dorsey helps launch the careers of Mahalia Jackson and
Sallie Martin.Harrison Ford,
an acrtor, is born in Chicago. Ruth
Lee Williams, 18, sings in a small nightclub called the "Stagebar" in the Garrick Building on Randolph Street. She had learned to sing in the choir of
St. Luke Baptist Church, honed her performance skills in the touring gospel group the Sallie Martin Singers, before picking up some vocal pointers from Billy Holliday who was appearing at
another club in the Garrick Building. Big band leader Lionel Hampton asked her to sing Sweet Georgia Brown, and asked her to tour with his band under a new name–Dinah Washington.
She quickly became know as the “Queen of the Blues,” and then “Queen of the Jukebox.” Curtis Mayfield is born in Chicago. He is a driving force
in black music from the early 60s through the mid 70s.Jack
DeJohnette is born August 9, in Chicago. He plays piano at age 4 and professionally
age 14. DeJohnette takes
up drums as his main instrument. Credits his uncle, Roy I Wood Sr. as his inspiration to play music. Wood is a Chicago disc jockey who later
becomes vice president of the National
Network of Black Broadcasters. Roger
McGuinn (born James Joseph McGuinn III on July 13, 1942) is born in Chicago,
attends Latin School and,
in 1957, he enrolls as a student at Chicago's Old Town School of Folk Music. In 1964 hebecomes co-founder of The Byrds.Manny’s Coffee Shop and Deli opens.Influenced by the teaching of Mahatma Gandhi, CORE, Committee (later
COngress) of Racial Equality is founded in Chicago by an interracial group of students, Bernice
Fisher, James R. Robinson, James L. Farmer, Jr., Joe Guinn, George Hauser and Homer Jack. CORE pioneered the strategy of nonviolent
direct action, especially
the tactics of sit-ins, jail-ins and freedom rides. The Chicago Cubs install an organ at Wrigley Field and start a national
tradition of organ music
baseball games.In November
John H. Johnson launches his first magazine, Negro Digest. A team of scientists at the University of Chicago led by
Enrico Fermi create the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear reaction on December 2. Foote, Cone & Belding, an advertising firm, is founded in Chicago.
1943In May, McKinley Morgenfield, better known as Muddy Waters,
arrives in Chicago from Clarksdale, Mississippi. He came looking for not merely a job but “to be great…I want to be known cross-country,
not like an ordinary
person who just lives and dies.” At the time, jump and jive blues is the dominant Chicago urban sound. Waters’ amplified grittier acoustic
delta blues sound made him a star, and establishes Chess Records and Chicago as the center of the postwar urban blues scene.Robert James (Bobby) Fischer, chess prodigy, grandmaster,
and eleventh World Chess Champion, maybe the greatest chess player of all time, is born in Michael Reese Hospital on March 9. He dies January 18, 2008 (age 64) in Reykjavik, Iceland. In mid-May, James L. Farmer (1920-1999), a founder of CORE,
leads a sit-in at Jack Spratt Coffee House, Kimbark and 47th Street. It is the first sit-in.The future Rev. Willie T. Barrow, native of Burton, Texas, moves to Chicago where she studies at
Moody Bible Institute. She
focuses on civil rights.
WBKB-Ch.4, W9XCB, becomes Chicago’s first commercial TV station.P.K. Wrigley, owner of the Cubs, founds The All-American Girls Baseball League.
first night game is played at Wrigley Field, a benefit all-star contest featuring women from the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League.On October 16,
Mayor Edward J. Kelly officially opens the subway system. Restaurateur Ric Riccardo and his partner
Ike Sewell first introduce and market “deep dish pizza, Chicago Style,” at Uno’s on East Ohio Street. A Georgia O’Keefe retrospective
at the Art Institute of Chicago is the first retrospective of a female artist at the museum. Mary T. Washington Wylie takes the IL CPA exam and becomes the first
African-American female CPA
Bellow publishes his first novel, Dangling Man. Ivan Albright and his brother, Zsissly collaborate on the pictures used
in the 1944 movie The
Picture of Dorian Gray. Louis
Eckstein’s widow donates the 36-acre park to the Ravinia Festival Association. Offended by the provocative pinups drawn by Alberto Vargas
for Esquire, offices in the Palmolive Building (919 N. Michigan Ave.), the U.S. Postmaster General revokes the magazine’s second-class mailing license. The Supreme Count overturns the ruling
Glass Menagerie, a play in seven scenes by Tennessee Williams, premiers at the Civic Theatre on December 26. The "Shangri-La" restaurant, with tiki-bar and two zombie-drink
limit, opens (closes 1968).
1945A Street in Bronzeville is published by Gwendolyn Brooks. The first Chicago based record label, "Mercury," opens
its offices at 35 East Wacker Drive, and produces a string of classic blues, R&B, and jazz hits by the likes of Big Bill Broonzy,
Dinah Washington, and Jay
McShann.About 500 Native
Americans live in Chicago.Borden's
ice cream is sold for 10 cents by Wrigley Field concessionaires. Harmonica legend Little Walter moves to Chicago from Mississippi. The nation’s three largest steel mills are U. S.
Steel’s Gary Works, South Works and Inland Steel. Chicago becomes the world’s largest producer of steel.Robert Walker founds the Christian Writers Institute, a correspondence
school.The Chicago Transit
Authority (CTA) is created, marking the beginning of public ownership of the city's mass-transit system.M.S. Distributors is founded and run by Milt Salstone. By 1963
M.S. is distributing some forty-eight labels. Chicago
Shimpo, an Albany-Park based Japanese-American newspaper is first published.Ebony magazine is launched.Ora Higgins takes charge of integration
initiatives at Chicago based Spiegel, at the time one of the largest mail-order business's in the world, making Spiegel instrumental
in the hiring of hundreds of female
and minority employees. Robert
Reder and Jack Besser found Monogram Models Inc. Midway Airport counts some 1,300,000 passengers.
1946Leonard and Phil Chess, Polish-born brothers and a woman
named Evelyn, starts AristocratRecords.
As Chess Records, the company becomes the nation's premier outlet for urban blues
and early rock‘n’roll with hits by
Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, and Howlin’ Wolf. The nation’s first paid political telecast occurs on WBKB when
Alderman Bertram Moss seeks re-election
and is interviewed by Bob Elson in a fireside chat. Roosevelt University moves into the Auditorium Building. In polka halls along Milwaukee Avenue and in the Southwest
side, a “Chicago style” polka is verypopular. Li’l Wally (Walter Jagiello) cut his first two Chicago style polka records,
Our Break Up, and Away
From Chicago. Li’l Wally eventually cut seventeen gold and four platinum records.Central Appliance and Furniture is renamed Polk Bros.The elegant art nouveau
store fixtures of Kranz's Candy store are sold at auction. On June 5, a
fire in the LaSalle Hotel claims 61 lives and injures more than 200. An entire dinner cost only $3.50 at the swank Kungsholm Restaurant.The birth of his own son, David, September 19, is
photographed, complete with umbilical cord, by Wayne Miller, is
published as a centerpiece in the 1955 exhibition The Family
of Man. Gladys Holcomb’s
"Home Cooking" (soul food) restaurant opens in Bronzeville (closes c. 2003).John Prine, a critically
acclaimed singer/songwriter is born October 10,
in Maywood.With the help of Ed Sprinkle and Mike Jarmoluk, the Chicago Bears
pressure the Green Bay Packers
into a 10-7 loss and capture the NFL championship.On October 28, American Community Buildiers announced that Forest Park would be built. Construction began October 28, 1947 and is completed late October
1949. The first three families
moved in August 30, 1948. Forest Park is the first fully planned post WWII suburb in the US. . Arthur John (Jack) Johnson nicknamed the “Galveston Giant,”
first African-American world heavyweight
boxing champion and arguably the best heavyweight boxer of his generation, is buried at Graceland Cemetery.Argonne National Laboratory is established.
1947Wrigley Field hosts 46,572 people, the highest ever paid admission,
on May 18, to see the first black man, Jackie Robinson, play his first game on a Chicago field. Avant-garde performance artist Laurie Anderson is born in Chicago.
She moves from Chicago to
New York in 1967. Vivian Carter becomes the city’s first black female disk jockey on station WGES. In 1953, Ms. Carter co-founds VeeJay records. VeeJay records is
considered the first successful black-owned record company in the United States, predating Motown by a few years.Wrigley Field hosts its first All-Star Baseball Game.August records an average temperature of 80.2º, a record.Zenith
introduces the world's first subscription TV system known as PhoneVision. The first parking meters are installed in Chicago. Kitty Baldwin and Jody Kingrey open Baldwin-Kingrey, the
first Chicago store to import furniture
from Finnish designer Alvar Aalto.Willard Motley publishes his first novel, Knock on Any Door. It receives wide acclaim and is short-listed for a Pulitzer. It is made into a movie in 1949, staring
Riperton is born November 8 in Chicago. An angelic five-octave
voice makes her one of
music’s most distinctive singers.Katherine Dunham choreographs the musical play Windy City, which premiers at the Great
It is said to have influenced Jerome Robbin's choreography for West Side Story.
Joseph Anthony "Joe" Mantagna, actor, producer, writer, director played bass in a local
band called The
Apocryphals which played with The Missing Links, who went on to form the band Chicago, is born in Chicago November
Finch conducts the first performance of the Chicago Youth Symphony Orchestra, Nov. 14. Fritzel’s Restaurant opens. It is home of the three-hour lunch for columnists and other Chicago luminati.
four major television stations on the air.The Chicago Sun-Times and WGN-TV are launched.WGN-TV broadcasts its first big-league game on April 16, with Jack Brickhouse calling the White
Sox's 4-1 win against the
Cubs at Wrigley Field.
the late 1940s, jazz deejay, Holmes “Daddy-O” Daylie, became one of the nation’s
first major African-American radio personalities on stations such as WAIT, WMAQ,
and WGN. Daddy-O gets the Ramsey
Lewis Trio an audition with Chess Records. Preston Tucker (1903-1956), Alex Tremulis and J. Gordon Lippincott and Co. design nearly
identical Tucker automobiles in Chicago before the Tucker Company folds on March 3,
1949 amid allegations of
Otis Rush, born in Philadelphia, MS, April 29, 1935, moves to Chicago.Jimmy Wilson starts to run the Woodlawn Tap, aka as Jimmy's on 55th and Woodlawn.In the 1940s, consisting predominantly of Puerto Rican
males, The Latin Kings street gang is founded in Chicago. Known as the Almighty Latin Kings and Queen Nation, its membership quickly swells.
gymnast, Meta Elste, though 26, helps USA win first women's gymnastics
medal, a bronze, at Olympic Games in London. Ms. Elste is also three-time US Amateur Athletic Association champion, two-time Olympian, is also three-time US Amateur Athletic Association champion, two-time Olympian, 1974 inductee into the US
Gymnastics Hall of Fame, and active in the Lincoln Turner organization until she retires, age 51, in 1972, after winning a gold medal in the senior ladies AA Division at the Turners National Turnfest
in Milwaukee.Robert Walker
founds Christian Life magazine. Eugene Ormandy makes his debut conducting the Chicago Symphony.Cricket Hill, the hill at Montrose beach, is shaped from nearby
Lake Shore Drive construction debris. Northerly Island, a landfill peninsula, becomes Meigs
Field airport, it exists until 2003.
1949Construction begins on 860-880 N. Lake Shore Drive, the world's
first structurally expressivehigh-rise
apartment by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Their clean-lined glass-box look influence skylines around the world. WBKB, a Chicago television station (becomes WBBM in 1953), made
many firsts, including the
first broadcast of any consequence made outside a studio - the Shriner's parade in Chicago, thefirst full-length dramatic production ever telecast in "its entirety, with costumes and setting", andthe first midnight mass from Holy Name Cathedral. University of Chicago law school graduate, Russell Baker teams
up with trial lawyer, John McKenzie,
to form Baker & McKenzie. In 1987, the firm becomes the first
law firm in the world to employ 1,000 attorneys. By 2004, it is the largest law firm in the world with more
than 3,200 lawyers in 38 countries.On June 14, in Room 1297 A of the
Edgewater Beach Hotel, nineteen year old Ruth Ann Steinhagen stalks and shoots former Cubs first
baseman Eddie Waitkus with a .22-caliber rifle.
Waitkus survives.In 1952, novelist Bernard Malamud fictionalizes the story of Waitkus
and Steinhagen in his book, The Natural. In 1984
the novel becomes a film starring Robert Redford and Barbara Hershey.Municipal
Airport is renamed Midway, in honor of the clash near Midway Island
in early June 1942 that turned around the war in the Pacific. Midway Airport
claims one landing or takeoff every 2 minutes.
Jesse Owens, winner of a gold medal at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, settles in Chicago and is buried
at Oak Woods Cemetery.
puppets join Fran Allison on TV as Kukla, Fran and Ollie. "This program came to you from Chicago, where ---" is the sign
off of NBC's Galloway at Large, the first "night" show in the U.S. It had
a nationwide audience of three and a half million viewers. For
11 years Clifford T. Johnson broadcasts everything that happens in his Oak Park household from
7:30 to 8:15 am
as his daily show on WBBM. The first Garrett’s popcorn store opens in the Loop.
1950Chicago's population peaks at 3,620,962 people, boosted by the
post-war economic boom, a newsurge of immigration, and the annexation of 41.1 square miles. Tri-State Highway opens. It is renamed in 1953 for Robert Kingery,
former director of the state's Department of Public Works and general manager of the Chicago Regional Planning Association.Opened as the Calumet Expressway, it is renamed in 1996 for Chicago
religious activist Bishop Louis Henry Ford, founder and pastor of St. Paul Church of God in Christ
in Chicago.Chicago produces
a third of the nation's steel.Kaunch
Hirabayashi opens the Nisei Lounge at Clark and Division. It is named for American-born children of Japanese immigrants who were imprisoned during WW II.
Zenith developed the Lazy
Bones Station Selector, a control module connected via a long cable to the TV. In 1955 Zenith brought out the first wireless remote,
a light beam generating device, followed in 1956 by the Zenith Space Commander TV Tuner based on high frequency transmission.Ed "the Claw" Sprinkle, a defensive end for the Chicago
Bears, is named the meanest man in football in a Collier's magazine article.Dominick's unveils its first large-scale supermarket (14,000 square feet) at 6900 W. North Ave.Metron Steel is founded by Andrew Athens (Andreas Athanasoulas)
and his brother, Thomas. Robert
O. Burton designs the first lunch box specifically for children, the Hopalong Cassidy lunch box. Aladdin Industries of Chicago manufactures
this immediate success. Many more designs follow.William James "Bill" Murray, is born September 21, in Wilmette. He eventually wins an Emmy Award for his Saturday Night Live performances.Gwendolyn Brooks receives a Pulitzer Prize for Annie
Allen, her second collection of poems. Chicago passes its first “J” walking law. The first
arrest is made three years later.Walgreens introduces the nations first full self-service drug store.November
1, Chicago's temperature hits 80º. The latest date for this high on record.
Abbott Laboratories introduces Sucaryl, 30 times sweeter than sugar.
1951While employed at the Weber Brothers Metal Works, George
Stephen decides to combine two spun
metal domes already in production to develop a cover and bottom for his grill design that eventually becomes the Weber Grill.
calls Chicago the “Top TV Town." Today, vocal-group aficionados consider the Flamingos, formed in 1951, one of the,
if not the,best of their
era. I Only Have Eyes For You is a national hit in 1959. Their style influenced groups such as the Four Tops and the Temptations.
On September 25, Rafael Kubelik
conducts the Chicago Symphony’s first television appearance over WENR Chicago.The College of Complexes, a free-speech forum is founded.Andy's opens as a grungy hangout for Chicago Tribune and
Sun-Times pressmen. Ernest
Allen opens Allen Studio of Music to teach piano and organ, and provides musicians to black churches across the nation. On December 16,
the Chicago Bears play their crosstown rivals the Chicago Cardinals at Wrigley
Field in 2° temperature. The Cardinals win. Run by Bernard and Rita Jacobs, WFMT, 98.7, goes on the air. Edens Parkway, named for William G. Edens, a banker known
as the pioneer of the "good roads movement in Illinois," which culminates with the state's first highway bond issue in 1918, opensOn Christmas Eve to Christmas Day, 8.6" of snow fall.
1952On July 26, Adlai
Stevenson accepts the Presidential nomination at the Democratic NationalConvention. He looses the election to former General Dwight Eisenhower.
A.J. Liebling writes a series
of savage articles about Chicago for the New Yorker Magazine that are subsequently reprinted in a book entitled Chicago: The Second City.Dan Edelman opens his public relations firm with three
employees and one client, the Toni HomePermanent Co., a neighbor in the Merchandise Mart. Edelman helps develop the advertising campaign: "Which Twin has the Toni?" A street-corner a cappella doo-wop group, The Dells,
originally known as The El-Rays, are formed in Harvey, Illinois by Marvin Junior, Charles Barksdale, Michael McGill,
Verne Allison, and Johnny Funches. In 1960, Johnny Funches is replaced by Johnny Carter.
Tribune headlines that Chicago's "steel output is higher than Britain." Howlin’ Wolf moves from Mississippi to Chicago and begins recording with Chess
Products cans fully prepared pizza sauce. The Spaniels, a doo-wop vocal group forms in Gary, Indiana
and VeeJay Records is formed to release their material.Richard
Goldstein and Norman Ackerman found Perma Power, a firm that made
the first all-transistorwireless garage door opener that clipped on the sun visor of a car. Congress Parkway is widened bringing
the curb to the southern edge of the Auditorium Building. To make spae for a sidewalk, several rooms and part of the theater's lobby
are removed.Chicago's American
Giants, a Negro League team, disbands.Pioneering a new use for plastics, Carl Plochman introduces yellow mustard in a yellow squeeze
barrel. Italian immigrants Gus and Ida Lazzerini acquire Club Lago
on Superior and Orleans, and start serving Tuscan food to the printers and paper salesmen in the Chicago neighborhood originallyknown as Smoky Hollow (today know as River North). The soap opera, Guiding Light, created in Chicago
by Irna Phillips (1901-1973), airs on CBS TV, 30 June 1952, after 15 years of radio (starting in Chicago on January 25, 1937, on NBC Radio).
1953On 23 June, Bertolt Brecht’s The Caucasian
Chalk Circle receives its Chicago premier at Playwright’s Theater Club, 1560 N. LaSalle. First as gospel singers and then as a soul-pop group, The Staple
Singers have several soul and pop hits.
In his Chicago’s Left Bank, Alson J. Smith
describes the city as "Florence to New York's Rome."
“Linn Burton for certain!” starts his TV career
selling appliances for Polk Bros.On July 21, Richard J. Daley becomes chairman
of the Cook County Democratic Committee.On August
3, a stolen small plane flown by a young World War II veteran pilot crashes in Wrigleyville.Founded by Angeline DeCorah, an elder of
the Ho-Chunk Nation and Susan Kelly Power, The American Indian Center, the first urban American Indian Center in the country, opens in Uptown. It serves
more than 100 tribes.On June 3, Florence Price, composer, dies from a stroke.
Fence Farms is started by Robert C. Haster on the former estate of coal tycoon Stuyvesant Peabody on the old U.S. Route 66. His son, Robert J. Haster
transformed the southwest suburbanfamily-style restaurant into a local favorite. In November the first issue of Hugh Hefner's Playboy appears. Inside, a 1947 photo of
Marilyn Monroe, naked,
appears as the first centerfold and first "Playmate of the Month."Kraft introduces Jet-Puffed Marshmallows.
Taylor, age 18, arrives in Chicago.Polk Bros. offers a free Christmas tree with a major purchase. Fritz Reiner conducts his first concert as Chicago Symphony music director
on November 14.
DJ Herb Kent coins “dusties” for soulful oldies.
1954Harold Warp develops skin-packaging, known since 1956 as Jiffy-Wrap.
Ending the city's seven-year
operatic drought with a production of Mozart's Don Giovanni, Lyric Theater Chicago (later known as the Lyric Opera) is launched
by Carol Fox on February 5. Andres Segovia makes his Chicago Symphony debut playing
Castelnuovo-Tedesco’s Guitar Concerto. Founded in 1908 by Salvatore Ferrara of Nola, Italy, Ferrara Pan Candy Co. introduces Atomic Fireballs. By 2003, consumers eat about 15 million Fireballs
per week.The Women’s
Board of the Art Institute unveils the Art Rental and Sales Gallery, which makes original art affordable to average citizens, and creates a new revenue
stream for the museum.Marilyn
Alaimo (born 1931) takes a job at Northern Trust Co. as a bond trader, the first woman to do so at Northern Trust, and one of the first women in the US to do
so for a major bank.Ernest
Hemingway, born in Oak Park, wins the Nobel Prize in Literature.Between June 11 and June 21,
Chicago experienced eleven 90ºs days
in a row establishing eight new record highs. In total June experienced sixteen 90º plus days. On June 26 intense
heat generated a line of severe thunderstorms that raced southeast at 60 mph, reaching Chicago and southern Lake Michigan at about 8
a.m. The storms generated a seiche, sending 6- to 8- foot swells to the Michigan shore around 8:30 am
that reflected back to the Chicago shore as an 8- to 10- foot wave inundating areas from North Avenue
to Wilmette. Eight people died, including seven fishermen swept off the Montrose Harbor pier. Hugh Hefner moves Playboy out of his apartment into 11 E. Superior
St., across the street from Holy
Name Cathedral. Rickie Lee
Jones, a musician, is born in Chicago. Kraft's Macaroni & Cheese box turns blue. It had been predominantly yellow since its
introduction in 1937.
Shiffer becomes the first president of the Chicago Police Crossing Guard Associates. George Johnson borrows $250 from a bank and another $250
from a friend to launch his own company, Johnson Products, the first hair care brand developed specifically for African American hair. Its first product is Ultra Wave, a hair relaxer for men
Chuck Renslow opens Kris Studio (7 W. Maple
St.) specializing in men’s “physique photos.”On November 15, Maria Callas as "Lucia"
performs Lucia di Lammermoor.
1955Richard J. Daley
is sworn in as mayor on April 20. He is re-elected five more times until 1976, when he suffers a heart attack and dies.
Chicago’s population is 3,260,962. Almost 15% of the city’s population is foreign born.On February 12,
a fire in the SRO Barton Hotel on Madison Street claims 29 lives. Congress Expressway opens. It is renamed in 1969 after Dwight D.
Eisenhower, who signed into law
the First Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, which called for an interstate highway network to join cities across the country.Chicago has five miles of expressway.Emmett Till, a 14-year-old Chicago native is murdered in Mississippi
for allegedly whistling at a white woman. He is buried at Burr Oak Cemetery, Alsip.
O'Hare airport opens and within a decade becomes the world's busiest airport. Ray Kroc opens his first McDonald’s in Des Plaines,
Illinois. On the first day of business, proceeds total $366.12. Nelson Algren’s Man with a Golden Arm is made into a Frank Sinatra hit. It is shot on soundstagesinstead of city streets. Between June 27 and July 23 Chicago
experiences 27 consecutive days above 80°.Chicago experiences 46 days above 90º.July's average temperature is 81.3º, a record. Bill Putman Sr. (1920-1989) opens Universal Recording at the corner
of Rush and Walton. Putman changed the art of studio recording by developing the first modern recording
console, the first use of
tape echo, the first isolated vocal booth, the first multiple over-dubs of a single voice, the
first 8-track recording,
the first in half-speed disc recording, and the first use of artificial reverb on The Harmonicat’s hit song Peg-O-My-Heart.
Songs cut here include Jackie Wilson’s Higher and Higher, the Four Seasons, Big Girls Don’t Cry, and
most famously, Chuck Berry’s Maybelline. Sonny Boy Williams moves to Chicago and begins recording blues hits for Chess Records. Paul Glass founds Allstate Record Distribution Co. He quickly
becomes one of the largest independent
distributers in the county.On
October 3 Captain Kangaroo, with Bob Keeshan, premiers on CBS.
Bob Keeshan, born June 27, 1927
in Lynbrook, N.Y., creates the children's show and bases it on "the
warm relationship between grandparents
and children." Eugene
Polley, an engineer working for Zenith invents the Flash-Matic, the first TV remote control. At 601 feet, the Prudential Building is Chicago’s tallest
1956WNBQ, part of the NBC network, became the first TV station in the United States to transmit
of its live programs
in color. At the urging
of Franklin Park Dr. Gregory J. White, an early proponent of natural childbirth, seven
women form the La Leche League.
The Rev. Johnnie Colemon founds
Christ Unity Center with 35 members and is pioneer in the New
Thought movement, which uses a metaphysical interpretation of the Bible and focuses
and positive thought.
On April 11, Chicago experiences a relative humidity of 13%, tying the record set in 1934. Eli Toscano
and Howard Bendo found Cobra Records on Chicago's West Side. Willie Dixon is "the artistic vision." Cobra helped launch
the recording careers of Chicago blues artists Otis Rush, Magic Sam, and Buddy Guy. The label goes out of business in 1959.The Morton Salt Girl gets a yellow umbrella.WTTW is the first U.S. station to televise college courses
Adler, a Vienna-born physicist for Zenith, develops the Space Commander remote. It relies on high-frequency chimes that keyed a sensor to change
chick is hatched at the Museum of Science and Industry.Policewomen are allowed to wear police uniforms, until then restricted
to skirt and leather pumps.
Chess Records starts recording at 2120 S. Michigan.
Chief Records is founded by Mel London to record blues artists.
Landfill of lakefront to Hollywood
Avenue is completed. Ardco
introduces the glass refrigerator door into supermarkets. Chicago hosts the first Lithuanian Folk Dance Festival outside Lithuania. The Impressions, a group with close vocal harmonies and a big band horn sound, form in
the Chicago Tribune prints a map showing concentric rings of destruction radiating out from a a-bomb that destroys the city's center - "Only the
stubs of buildings would be left as far north as Division street, as far south as 16th street, as far east as the lake, and as far west as Racine
article forecast. Reinforcing this mind-set, about 20 anti-aircraft missile bases ring the Chicago metro area, including installations in Jackson Park, Montrose
Harbor, Arlington Heights, Homewood, Orland Park and Gary. Whether or not they would have provided actual protection remains untested. Ultra Sheen, a hair relaxer for African-American women
is introduced by Johnson Products.Mister Kelly's, a nightclub, opens at 1028 N. Rush. It closes in 1975.A victim of the Eisenhower Expressway, the last Chicago, Aurora &
Elgin passenger train runs.Dorothy Fuller, as assistant fashion director at Marshall Field's, helps bring Christian Dior's "New Look" (and his young assistant Yves Saint
Laurent) to Chicago.
The metameter transmits data by telephone line to the National Weather Service office, where it is recorded on a circular sheet.With the purchase of Hyatt House, at Los Angeles International
Airport on September 27 from Hyatt van Dehn and Jack D. Crouch, Jay Pritzker and his younger brother Donald Pritzker get into the hotel business. By 2012, Hyatt had some 490 properties
Guy arrives in Chicago on a one-way train ticket.On December 1, folksingers Win Stracke and Frank Hamilton and their friend
Gertrude Soltker found
the Old Town School of Folk Music at 333 W. North Ave., with a concert featuring a bagpipe performance and a sing-along. On December 8, Chicago’s climatological record keeping
moves to Grant Park, about 100 yards
from the lake just south of Buckingham Fountain.
1958Stan Musial hits his 3,000th hit in Wrigley Field. Fifteen-year-old Daniel Barenboim makes his Orchestra Hall recital debut. Margaret Hillis makes her subscription concert debut conducting
the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
and Chorus in Honneger’s Christmas Cantata. Jerry Butler and The Impressions (Sam Gooden, Arthur Brooks, Richard Brooks and Curtis
with VeeJay Records on the strength of For Your Precious Love. Music critic Joe McEwen writes in Rolling Stone, "the song can almost be
considered the first soul record."After having been a concept in Burnham’s 1909 Plan, Congress Expressway (Parkway) opens and includes a transit line, but had lost most of its parkway
Coast," the nation's first gay leather bar, opens at 501 N. Clark.The Blackstone Rangers, a street gang, is founded by at the St. Charles
Institution for Troubled Youth by Jeff Fort and Eugene Hairston as a community organization for black youth, 12-15 year olds, living along Blackstone Avenue in the Woodlawn neighborhood of
Chicago.Led by Edward
"Pepalo" Perry, the Vice Lords gang is founded by several African American youths, all from North Lawndale, while incarcerated in the Illinois
State Training School for Boys in St. Charles. African American chef-businessman Argia B. Collins develops and trademarks Mumbo Sauce.George H. Shorney acquires Hope Publishing and soon focuses
on choral music, resulting in a revival.Fred L. Turner writes McDonald's first operations and training manual.On October 18, Fire Commissioner Robert Quinn introduces his fire fighting
invention, the Snorkel, at a blaze in a lumber yard on Cermak Road. Quinn's Snorkel changes the way fires are fought worldwide. Known for keeping the Mexican mural tradition alive, Francisco
Mendoza (dies of Cancer, March 2012) is born in Blue Island. He grows up in South Chicago, earns a bachelor's degree in fine arts from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and lives in the
Pilsen neighborhood since about 1985 where he is an art teacher at Orozco Career Academy. His most famous mural designs cover the front of
Orozco Career Academy,
1940 W. 18th Street and the CT Blue Line "L" station mural at 1710 W. 18th Street.On December 1, 3 nuns and 92 children die as flames rage through Our Lady
of the Angels School.
Bill Veeck becomes the principal owner of
the Chicago White Sox. The White Sox win the American League pennant. A serious believer in democracy, Veeck has no door on his office and during games,
he sits in the bleachers.
play, A Raisin in the Sun, opens in New Haven, CN, then Philadelphia, then Chicago, then on Broadway. Born on the city's South Side; Hasberry's play is partially autobiographical. Sidney Poirtier and Ruby Dee lead the cast that included Louis Gossett, Jr. Diana
Sands and Glynn Turman. The
Second City improvisational theater opens at 1842 N. Wells. It developed out of The Compass Players, founded at the University of Chicago in 1955,
by David Shepherd, Paul Sills, Elaine May, Mike Nichols,Barbara Harris, Severen Darden, Shelley Berman, and Bernie Sahlins. Second City alumni include, Alan Arkin, Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi,
Gilda Radner, John Candy, Jim Belushi, Betty Thomas, Bill Murray, Joan Rivers, and Alan Alda. Chuck Berry cuts his rock’n’roll classic Johnny B. Goode and Reelin’
and Rockin at Chess Records. Art Shay had won twenty art director awards for his photography before he took Life magazine's
“picture of the year.”
On July 4, about 1,500 Marines, backed by
naval bombardment and air support, gain a beachhead at Montrose Avenue. A Navy flotilla that includes a heavy cruiser, a frigate, numerous destroyers
and submarines waited
off shore. This assault is part of a celebration marking the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway. On July 6, a much more refined ceremony welcomes Queen Elizabeth II of
Great Britain to Chicago. The Queen visits Chicago for 13 hours.Polk Bros. donates a half-mile of red carpet on Queen Elizabeth's arrival at Navy Pier. Polk Bros.
"We treat every woman like a queen."A group of Chicago artists, including Don Baum, Cosmo Campoli, George Cohen, Leon Golub, Nancy Spero, H.C. Westermann, Karl Wirsum, several of whom
were mentored by Vera Berdich, form the Monster Roster. Franz Schulze coins the group's name.
Tyrone Davis moves to Chicago and over the next 30-years becomes a leading
soul singer with many
hit records.Midway Airport traffic peaks when one landing and takeoff is recorded every 51 seconds.
Frances Harrington retires, her former student, Robert Marks takes over Harrington Institute of Design.In late August Chicago hosts the Pan American Games, the largest international sporting event to be help up to that point
in the US. There are many problems. The US wins an embarrassing 121 out of 164 events.Lakeshore Air and Water Show starts as a family celebration
for kids in the park district day camp
program. With an $88 budget, the show features a watermelon scramble, water ballet and a CoastGuard Air Sea Rescue demonstration.The Prime Time, by direct marketing advertising
executive and filmmaker, Herschell Gordon Lewis (nicknamed the 'Godfather of Gore"), is the first feature film produced in Chicago since the
1910s. Concluding their 59th season in the major leagues, the Chicago White Sox beat Cleveland to win the American League championship,
five games ahead of Cleveland. It is their first pennant
There Be Light And There Was Light, a 40 feet long stained glass window designed by Abraham
Rattner and fabricated by Barillet Studio, Paris, France,
is installed in Chicago Loop Synagogue.
Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan’s Schiller Building is demolished. Pianist Van Cliburn makes his debut with the Chicago Symphony.
The first Playboy
Club opens February 29, at 116 East Walton Place. The club is an instant local
success. In August Playboy reveals the existence
of the club and its fame becomes international. The Northwest Expressway opens. It is renamed for John F. Kennedy in 1963.Del Close arrives in Chicago and begins working at Second
begins a travel training program for young women from the House of the Good Shepherd.Summit Distributors, an independent label record is founded
and owned by Seymour Green and Jack White. It distributes some nineteen record labels including Columbia's Epic and OKeh subsidiaries, A&M, and Warner Brothers. At about the
same time, Ernie and George Leaner of United Records Distributors are owners of such wonderful labels as Mar-V-Lus, One-derful and M-Pa. Margaret
Vinci Heldt, owner of Margaret Vinci Coiffures on Michigan Avenue from 1950-1970, is asked by editors of Modern Beauty Salon magazine
to come up with a new hairstyle to usher in the '60s. She is inspired by a little black fez-style cap with two beaded decorations that look
like bees - she
calls it the beehive. Ratted-up with hairspray, the beehive could maintain its shape for a week between beauty parlor appointments.White Sox owner Bill Veeck introduces the pinball-inspired
exploding scoreboard at Comisky Park. It is quickly copied by countless other sports teams. Jim "The Courtesy Man" Morgan, a TV personality, offers a cash prize of $3,675 to the
first person to
swim from Chicago to Michigan City. In 1961, Ted Erikson wins the prize.
On the morning of August 28, Velma Murphy Hill, age 21, leads a racially
diverse group onto all white
Rainbow Beach. A white mob formed a gantlet and threw stones before police arrived. The following summer, July 8, 1961, 200 police officers protected
nearly 100 activists on Rainbow Beach. Thousands of whites looked on.With CTA backing, the Illinois Constitution is amended to describe public transportation as "an essential public service for which public funds may be
airs Bozo’s Circus on September 11. Bob Bell is Bozo.After 36
years of broadcasting farm news, WLS goes Rock & Roll. The Chi-Lites form. Their yearning ballads, featuring falsetto vocals and close harmonies make
them the leading
soul group of the early 1970s.September 7, temperature hits 100º. The latest date for this high on record. Chicago
Skate Company reintroduces the 100 years-old concept of inline-skating with its inline
wheels directly affixed to the shoe. 1961McCormick Place is completed for the 34th Annual National
Housewares Manufacturing Association
show in January. On the night before the show opens, the building catches fire and burns in what
is the largest fire in the city of Chicago since the Great Fire of 1871.April 15-17 records Chicago's biggest late season snow, 6.8"Bill
Veeck sells the White Sox.Fred L. Turner founds
McDonald's Hamburger University in Elk Grove Village. It confers a Bachelor of Hamburgerology degree.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopts the
Zenith invented FM stereo multiplex system.
Frozen pork belly futures start being traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. They stop being
traded in July,
P.K. Wrigley invents the College of Coaches in which the team has no manager but is run by a group of coaches who take turns serving as head
coach. The idea continues through the 1962 season and is then dropped.Ted Erikson, a 33-year-old research chemist at the Illinois Institute of Technology, sets a world open water distance record when he swims 43 miles - the actual
distance was longer because he was pushed off course by wind and currents - from Chicago to Michigan City in 36.5 hours.Dr. Margaret Goss Burroughs founds the DuSable Museum of
African American History, the first African-American history museum in the US.The Chicago Blackhawks win the Stanley Cup. Daniel B. Ryan Expressway opens. It is named after the president of the
Cook County Board of
Commissioners who died in office that year.Lloyd Pettit, with Joe Wilson, starts to announce Blackhawk WGN-TV play-by-play. Pettit is soleWGN-TV announcer from 1963-1970.Pettit is WGN radio Blackhawk
Jerome Sultan and Reinhard Plaut introduce the Four-Plus-One apartment building into Lincoln Park and Lakeview neighborhoods where land use
is zoned R5. In these neighborhoods and along the northern lakefront, the Four-Plus-One remains a popular building type in the 1960s.By extending Lincoln Park to Hollywood Ave., the Park expands
to 1,185 acres.At
the height of the bomb shelter building craze, the Chicago City Council entertains an ordinance requiring that anyone building a shelter pay $15.00 for
a permit.With 17
people investing $10 each, the Seminary Co-op, a bookstore, opens and quickly becomes a Hyde Park institution. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra wins its first Grammy award.
1962 The first segment of the Dan Ryan Expressway opens from Congress Expressway (Eisenhower
Expressway) to 71st St. The Ferrara Pan Candy Co. introduces Lemonheads. By 2003,
500 million are produced annually.Gordon and Carole Segal open their first Crate & Barrel on North Wells Street.The rUmPuSrOom, the "Newest swank Twistery and Dinner
Breakfast Spot" opens on Rush St. In March, One-derful records is launched by George Leaner. Its first release is a song by McKinley Mitchello called The Town I Live In, and it is
a national hit on the R&B charts.Wendella starts a rush-hour commuter service on the Chicago River between Michigan Avenue and Northwestern Railroad Station known as a water taxi.On August 15, James Duke is electrocuted in the basement
of Cook County Jail for the murder of a Chicago Police detective.The Gutierrez family opens Nevo Leon Restaurant at 1515 W. 18th Street in Pilsen.Victor Skrebneski becomes the exclusive photographer for
Estee Lauder's new ad campaign, "the Estee Lauder woman." Phyllis Connor Reardon, age 34, a Chicago model known as Phyllis Connor, becomes the first "Estee Lauder woman." She is discovered by Viktor Skrebneski.
O'Hare becomes Chicago's major airport and Midway Airport is considered an "aviation backwater."Gus Giordano (1923-2008) founds Giordano Jazz Dance Chicago.The Robert Taylor Homes, a public housing development,
Chandler, a fixture in Chicago soul for over 30 years, produces his solo debut, a backward
glance at doo-wop style called Duke of Earl.Polk Bros. gives a plastic lighted Santa Clause to customers
who make a purchase. Santa pop up on the porches, lawns and rooftops of nearly a quarter-million Chicago area homes.Evelyn Echols founds the Echols International Travel &
Hotel School. Major
Lance writes songs with Curtis Mayfield and signs with OKeh Records. His second OKeh single, The Monkey Time, becomes a #2 Billboard R&B
chart and a #8 pop hit in 1963.
Quirky storefront restaurant, the Bakery, is opened by Louis Szathmáry.
Botti Studio of Architectural Arts opens.
The Studio traces its stained glass roots to 17th century Italy.Marking the end of an era, the last Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee Railway runs January 21.
2 p.m. May 9, a fast-moving cold front sweeping south down the length of the dropped
the lakefront temperature 22 degrees, from 84° to 62°,
in just 1 ½ minutes. Mike Royko starts his daily column with the Chicago Daily News. June 8, Marilyn Miglin opens her store at 112 East Oak
joins the staff of the Chicago Defender newspaper to cover the fine arts. Mr. Calloway is a man about town who made readers of black newspapers look
at the arts differently.An 6x12 foot trailer, without a toilet or running water, called The Dog House, is opened by Dick Portillo on North Avenue in Villa Park.
Maria Goeppert Mayer is awarded the Nobel
Prize in physics for her work at the University of Chicago. Leontyne Price makes her Chicago Symphony Orchestra debut in Berlioz’s Les nuits d’ete
and the suite
from Falla’s El amor brujo. Ronald McDonald makes his debut and McDonald’s serves its one billionth hamburger.
Founded by Leonard and Phil Chess of Chess
Records, the 1000-watt AM station WVON, the call letters stand for Voice of the Negro, debuts with a rhythm and blues format and is the first 24-hour
station aimed at the black community in Chicago. It helps
launch and solidify hundreds
of black artist’s careers.On October 6, 94° is recorded - an all-time Chicago
October high temperature and the latest 90° ever recorded in Chicago. October also records 24 days of 70° plus.Jim Dattalo opens The Fudge Pot, a fudge/chocolate
shop, on Wells Street. Formed in 1963, the Paul Butterfield Band helps spur the blues revival
of the 1960s. In 1965, at the
Newport Folk Festival, after playing their own set, this band backs Bob Dylan for his controversial
premiere electric performance.
Robert Sickinger arrives in
Chicago from Philadelphia to guide the theater program at Hull House
Association social services agency. Sickinger's
European focused experimental theater quickly
makes his mark, nourished homegrown people like Mamet and Jacobs, and becomes acclaimed as
Jim "The Courtesy Man" Moran posts a $15,000 challenge to swim 60 miles from Chicago's Burnham
Park Harbor to Silver Beach
in St. Joseph, MI. The winner in 35 hours, is 34-year-old Egyptian army
officer, Abdel-Latif Abou-Heif. Chicagoan Ted Erikson finishes
three hours later and receives $1,000.
Al Fritz, develops the Schwinn Sting-Ray. Going
through some 60 different permutations, Schwinn
sells nearly 2 million of them in 5 years..
Loyola University wins the men's NCAA tournament. The Veg-O-Matic is introduced at the International Housewares Show in Chicago by the Popeil Brothers.Elmore James dies. James was the one Chicago bluesman perhaps
most responsible for shaping the
style of slide-guitar playing that translates blues
to rock.Curtis Mayfield's
Gypsy Woman becomes a Top 20s hit for the Impressions. Then his song Amen makes it into the Top 10 and is included in the sound track
of the 1963 MGM film Lilies of the Field, starring Sidney Poitier.Written by Curtis Mayfield and sung by Major Lance, Um,Um,Um,Um,Um,Um reaches #5 in the
US pop charts.
1964The James W. Jardine Water Purification Plant opens just north of Navy Pier. It is the largest
purification plant of its kind in the world.
Beatlemania dawns in Chicago on September
5, as the Fab Four play the International Amphitheater.
They run off 11 songs in 34 minutes for 13,000 screaming fans. Ruth Duckworth, German-born, internationally acclaimed
ceramics artist, moves to Chicago to teach
at Midway Studios, The University of Chicago. Her first exhibition in American is in 1965 at the
The Pump Room is said to have invented adding a celery stalk to a "Bloody Mary" cocktail. A celery stalk
a "Bloody Mary" is a nationwide feature by 1966. The Ides Of March, a seven-piece group with horns is formed in Berwyn.William "Billy Goat" Sianis opens his second
Billy Goat Tavern at 430 N. Lower Michigan Ave.Jim Nutt, Gladys Nilsson and Jim Falconer with Don Baum, Hyde Park Art Center's director float
the idea of a group
show to include Art Green and Suellen Rocca and Karl Wirsum.Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Socialist, Communist, labor activist, co-founder of the ACLU, dies in Moscow,
is given a state
funeral in Red Square and is buried in Chicago's Waldheim Cemetery within Forest Home Cemetery, near the Haymarket Riot Martyrs.The Southwest Expressway opens. The next year it is renamed
after Adlai E. Stevenson II, former governor of Illinois, United Nations ambassador and two-time Democratic presidential candidate.The opening of the Stevenson Expressway breathes new life
into Midway Airport and United Airlines starts offering two daily flights to New York. Seiji Ozawa is named Ravinia’s first Music director.
1965Ten stained glass windows by Lubomyr Wandzura of Giannini
& Hilgart are installed in the Chicago
Temple, The First United Methodist Church, 77 West
Washington Street. A collection
of short stories by Harry Mark Petrakis, Pericles on 31st Street, is a finalist for the
National Book Award. Michael Kutza founds the Chicago International Film Festival.
for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) is founded by Fred Anderson. Alfonso Iannelli dies March 23. On Sunday, April 11, four tornadoes dip down across north
and west portions of Chicago, resulting
in six fatalities.William Russo founds The Chicago Jazz Ensemble iat Columbia College.
While some 50,000 fans scream incessantly,
the Beatles play two concerts on August 20. After the concert the Beatles stopped at Margie’s Candies in Bucktown for ice cream.
August 26-27 a Derecho - a widespread and
long-duration windstorm associated with a line of rapidly moving thunderstorms - forms ahead of a cold front dropping Chicago's temperature by 10º in one hour. On October 28, pianist Vladimir Ashkenazy makes his Chicago Symphony debut.George Solti and Mstislav Rostopovich make their first
appearance in Orchestra Hall.
Michael Bloomfield, born 1944,
on Chicago’s North Shore, joins the Chicago based Paul Butterfield
Band. He scores film soundtracks and plays guitar with Bob Dylan and others.Dr.Donald F. Steiner, University of Chicago, discovers
1966A new basketball team begins playing in Chicago –
the Bulls. On February
25, the first Hairy Who Exhibition opens at the Hyde Park Art Center. "Harry Who" is coined by Karl Wirsum after Harry Bouras, a WFMT art
and Our Gang, formed by Elaine “Spanky” McFarlane in Chicago, is a key part of the late
1960s folk/pop vocal-group movement, with
hits like Sunday Will Never Be The Same (1967).Richard Speck murders eight student nurses on the Far South Side. Kartemquin Film is founded as a cooperative turned company
focusing on social issues. Dr. Vincent J. Collins of Cook County Hospital authors Principles of Anesthesiology, the core
textbook in the field.Electrical Apparatus magazine is moved from St. Louis to
Chicago by its publishers, Elsie and Horace Barks.Dr. Charles Huggins, Director of the Ben May Institute, University of Chicago, is awarded a Nobel
Prize for his work
on prostrate cancer. Tootsie
Roll Industries moves to Chicago.Daniel Keyes writes Flowers for Algeron, a novel that goes inside the head of Charlie Gordon, a man with an IQ of 68 who is painfully aware of his mental limits
and yearns to be smart. Keyes wins a Hugo Award for the 1959 short story and the Nebula Award for the novel. In 1968 the novel is adapted as the movie Charlie which stars Cliff Robertson
in an Academy Award-winning performance. In 1980 the novel inspires a Broadway musical and a 2000 TV movie. In the 1960s, George J. Dekan invents and patents the 1/100
second Athletic Performance Analyzer. Roger Ebert
calls Tom Palazzolo's film Pigeon People, a film in which he finds poetry in a hunchbacked old woman in the Loop scattering breadcrumbs
for the birds, a "masterpiece."Magic Slim (born Morris Holt, Torrance, MI),
a Chicago Blues man, records his first single, Scufflin'.
During the 1960s, there are more African-American CPA’s
in Chicago than any other city in the nation.
Edna Stewart opens her soul food restaurant, Edna's, at 3175 West Madison Street, on Chicago's
West Side. Her earliest
patrons include The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King.
1967January 24, the temperature hits 65º During a short duration blizzard on February 23, 3.5"
of snow fall at Midway Airport in one hour,
setting a record for heaviest rate of snowfall.The South American, the last American passenger vessel operating
on the Great Lakes, is retired.Roger Ebert writes his first film review for the Sun-Times on April 3. On the afternoon of April 21, 11 tornadoes touch down killing
53 people in northeast Illinois,including 33 in Oak Lawn and 24 in the Belvidere area. The last riding stable closes in Lincoln Park.Elizabeth Clark "Liz" Phair, born Aprii 17, raised in Winnetka,
later records under the name Girly Sound.
Don Lee, later known as Haki Madhubuti, a black poet from Detroit, starts publishing poems
and eventually forms Third World Press, the largest African-American publisher in the country. An untitled 50-foot tall sculpture by Pablo Picasso
is dedicated August 15, on the Civic Plaza;
initially controversial, it quickly becomes as much a symbol of Chicago as
the Water Tower. Studs
Terkel’s Division Street: America is published.Jack Lanigan Sr.(1927-2018) develops the Mi-Jack, a boom-crane for easing access in tight spaces.
The Dog House is renamed Portillo's and moves to a new building in Villa Park. On July 13, the Jackson Five cut Big Boy in the One-derful Records
Building at 1827 S. Michigan Ave. It's their first ever studio session. Four months later, another session at Steeltown Records, in Gary, Indiana results in the January 1968 release of
Big Boy. It sells some 60,000 copies.Chicago is second to New York in air pollution.The Coq d'Or's "Bookbinder soup" is made with tomato stock and
red snapper, and served with a petit carafe of cherry and an Asiago cheese roll. Chicago receives federal "Model City" funds.On August 27, a mural on the side of an abandoned building at 43rd and
Langley, entitled "The
Wall of Respect", is dedicated. Gwendolyn Brooks reads a poem she wrote for the event.
The Museum of Contemporary
Art opens in a former bakery at 237 E.Ontario St. The opening shows are, Pictures to Be Read; Poetry to Be Seen. Alison Knowels'
The Big Book. Allan Kaprow's Words, and Claes Oldenburg's drawings,
Projects for Monuments.With
five hit singles in 1967 and 1968, the American Breed is one of Chicago's top pop bands. Formed in 1965, The Buckinghams, rock-with-horns
sound, have five Top 20 hits.A chapter of the National Organization for Women is organized in Chicago.Larry Lujack (born Larry Lee Blankenurg in Quasqueton, Iowa, becomes a
top 40 disc jockey on WLS. Known as Superjock, Lawrence of Chicago, Uncle Lar, King of the Corn Belt, Lujack becomes widely known for his darkly humorous Animal Stories and
Klunk Letter of the Day. Over Labor Day weekend, the National Conference for New Politics is convened in Chicago. Some
two thousand young activists attend. Riverview Park closes suddenly.The Blackstone Rangers formed "clubs" in other cities, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Gary.Jo Freeman and Schulamith Firestone found Westside, the
first radical feminist group in Chicago.Lorraine M. Sullivan, superintendent of CPS District 8, located in the Garfield Park and North Lawndale communities, creates her innovative Chicago Child-Parent
Center with six-mobile units, housing half-day preschool and kindergarten programs for 40 weeks. By her death, in 2013, it is the second-oldest
early-childhood program in the country. Only Head Start is older, launched in 1965.
William Walker paints a mural he called the Wall of
Respect, on a grocery-and-liquor store wall at 43rd St. and Langley Ave. Depicting great African-American achievers, it is the city's first mural.
destroyed in 1971, by a fire burns the building.
Designed as a “city within a city” by Bertrand Goldberg, Marina Towers are the world's
concrete buildings and immediately become a Chicago icon.Sidley & Austin is the new name of the law firm known since 1944 as Sidley, Austin, Brugess
& Harper. Adler
& Sullivan’s Auditorium Building reopens October 31.
1968This year the protests, demonstrations, and agitation for social reform
reach their peak. After
decades of efforts by Blacks to gain equality in civil life, that turn into riots touched off by the
murder of Martin Luther
King, Jr. The result is destruction of 162 buildings by fire
April 5-7 on
Chicago's West Side and the National Guard being
Dr. Hassan Najafi leads the 30-person team that performs Chicago's first successful heart
Alyce Marie-Therese Hamm
(born 1930) dresses Miss America, Debra Dene Barnes.
Gwendolyn Brooks is named poet laureate of Illinois.
Initially formatted as a
coffeehouse by Lenin "Doc" Pellegrino, Kingston Mines opens in a former
machine shop on Lincoln Avenue.
The Democratic National Convention of August
26-29 causes battles between protestors and police. Police again confronted protestors October 8-11. As the protests escalate, Mayor Richard J. Daley
calls in troops.
About 11,900 Chicago police officers, 7,500 Army soldiers and 7,500 Illinois National Guardsmen are deployed. Hundreds are arrested, and 119
police officers and 100 demonstrators are injured. Sen. Abraham Ribicoff of Connecticut, in a speech nominating George McGovern, states "with George McGovern as president of the United States,
we wouldn't have Gestapo tactics in the streets of Chicago." Hubert Humphrey's supporters retain control of the convention. The vice president is nominated on the first ballot.
Flaming cheese at tableside, or Saganaki,
is invented in the Greek Town restaurant, The Parthenon.WHPK,
the University of Chicago radio station, ten watts upgraded to 100 in 1985, starts
broadcasting to Hyde Park, Woodlawn, Kenwood, and much
of the south side.The
Dells have a top-40 hit with Stay in My Corner. Funded by the Kennedy Foundation and the Chicago Park District, the first Special Olympics Games
are held July 20
at Soldier Field with about 1,000 athletes from the United States and Canada.McDonald adds Big Mac to its menu.The Gangster Disciples, a street gang, is formed on the South-side of Chicago in the late 1960s when Larry Hoover, leader of the High Supreme Gangsters, and David Barksdale, leader of the Black Disciples join forces. Three sisters, Wanda, Sheila and Jeanette Hutchinson form The Emotions, a gospel turned soul group.Founded March 1962, One-derful records dissolves. Its influence
Ryan, is one of several owners who open Mother's, a bar, on Rush and Division.. The high-profile closing of Chicago gay bar the Trip led to a legal challenge
that went all the to the Illinois Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of the bar.Bobby Rush co-founds the Illinois Black Panther party. The Commission on Chicago Landmarks is founded.
1969The John Hancock building opens. Designed by SOM, it stands
1,127 feet. Ray Heckla, the original engineer responsible for the residential floors, 44 to 92, and his family move into a 2-bedroom apartment, becoming the John Hancock Centers first residents.
On January 14, the
Apollo 8 spacemen, Frank Borman, James Lowell Jr., and William Anders, get a tickertape parade through the Loop. Borman was born in Gary, IN., and
the Borman Expressway is named after him. Daniel Barenboim makes his first Chicago Symphony appearance as a pianist
First Piano Concerto (20 February). The Goodman Theatre, after 38 years of student productions, returns to its status as a professional
with its inaugural production of Soldiers, by Rolf Hochhut. Pierre
Boulez makes his debut conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Christo wraps the Museum of Contemporary Art.Alyce Marie-Therese Hamm (born 1930) dresses Miss Illinois, Judith Ford, who goes on to become
Miss America.Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a radical group,
holds its last convention with all participating groups present in Chicago. On April 15, the first production model Mustang is sold by the Johnson Ford dealership on Cicero Ave. in Chicago to Gail Wise, a 22-year old elementary school
teacher. This is two days before Lee Iacocca unveils it at the New York World's Fair. Bellwood native Eugene Cernan and fellow Apollo 10 crew members Thomas
Stafford and their families are welcomed on June 29, by tens of thousands of people during a parade that ended at Proviso East High School in Maywood. Their mission in May was a crucial
dry run for the Apollo 11 moonwalk. Cernan would be the last person to set foot on the moon during the Apollo 17 mission in 1972.Polly Kelly organizes the first Sheffield Garden Walk.The MCA exhibits Chicago Imagists in an exhibition entitled
"Don Baum Sez 'Chicago Needs Famous Artists.'"The Chicago Board of Trade introduces silver futures contracts, its first non-grain product.Chicago Women's Liberation Union (CWLU) is founded. The
organization serves as an umbrella for numerous groups who work to bring awareness and opportunities to women.
Chicago based Hyatt opens its first oversees hotel, the
Hyatt Regency Hong Kong.The Dells have a top-40 hit with Oh, What a Night.
Evolving from collective jazz experiments in Chicago in
the early and mid-1960s, The Art Ensemble of Chicago is arguably the most innovative jazz group to emerge in Chicago.
The Chicago group, Earth, Wind & Fire,
is formed and changes the sound of black pop in the 1970s.
Sir George Solti directs his first concert as the Chicago Symphony’s
eighth music director
(27 November), beginning a 22-year tenure. R. Kelly is born on Chicago’s South Side. McDonald’s “Billion Served” sign changes to “Five Billion Served.”
opens the Bijou Theatre.
1970 The band formerly called Chicago Transit Authority, now known as Chicago after pressure was
applied by the
city, scores a first hit with Smile. Chicago goes on to 20 Top 10 hits and 15
platinum or multiplatinum albums and sell more than 100
Ernie (Mr. Cub) Banks hits his 500th home
run in Wrigley Field. Ruth
Page establishes the Ruth Page Foundation and School of Dance, thus continuing to stress and create American themes for dance. Patricia Condon becomes the director of Special Olympics
Illinois. A year later she takes over as supervisor of special recreation programs for the Chicago Park District.Chicago hosts its first gay pride parade to mark the anniversary of the
first night of the NYC Stonewall events. It starts at Bughouse Square and goes down MIchigan Ave. to the Civic Center.Chicago is founded as a programming guide for
classical radio station WFMT. Aaron Copland conducts the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in his Appalachian Spring.
Chicago experiences a relative humidity
of 13%, tying a record set in 1934 and 1956.WBEZ joined National Public Radio as a charter member.Barbara Proctor founds her own ad agency.Mary Steedman Bacon Anderson, born in Chicago, January
1, 1948, is the first woman jockey to win 100 races.Dawn
Clark Netsch serves on the convention that drafts Illinois' Constitution.Kroger leaves Chicago, selling its stores to Dominick's.The original "Svengoolie," Jerry G. Bishop (born
Jerry Ghan, 1936-2013) hosts Screaming Yellow Theatre, a horror-film show on WFLD. It airs until 1973.After allowing an ordinance to expire, Chicago allows women
as bartenders for the first time.Starting August 17, Soul Train, sponsored
by Sear, Roebuck & Co., airs 5-days per week on WCIU-TV,
Channel 26. The creation of Don Cornelius (1936-2012), born on the South Side, graduated from DuSable High School, a music tastemaker, fashion leader,
smooth talker and business innovator and national icon, the show is nationally syndicated in 1971 and moves to Hollywood.Oakton Community College opens with 832 students in four
factory buildings at Nagle Avenue and Oakton Street in Morton Grove. Raymond Hartstein is its founding chairman.
Bookstore opens in Hyde Park, 1501 E. 57th St.
1971The Chicago Stock Yards close, after years of decline. McCormick Place Convention Center opens as the largest
in the world. Grease,
a new musical by locals Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey, based on their experiences at William H. Taft High School, opens February 11, in the Kingston Mines
Theater, 2356 N. Lincoln (now a hospital parking garage). A sanitized version is presented as a film in 1978.On Aril 8, a relative humidity of 13% is recorded, tying the record set in 1934 and
young conductor from Cincinnati named James Levin makes his Ravinia Festival debut on
June 24, taking over the Mahler Resurrection Symphony
on a week' notice at the season-opening gala. Levin so impresses everyone that he is named Ravinia music director the following year. The Chicago Symphony goes on its first European tour.McDonbald's Hamburger University opens a training center
in Tokyo one month after opening of the first McDonald's restaurant in Tokyo.Plochman's Mustard squeeze barrel is awarded a trademark. Alligator
Records is formed by Bruce Iglauer to record the single Hound Dog Taylor and the House Rockers.La Fontanella Restaurant opens on South Oakley Ave.Faces, a disco club, opens: membership is $500.00. It closes
in 1989. The
Chicago Reader begins publishing. Johnson Products becomes the first African American owned company to be listed on the American Stock Exchange and its President George Johnson becomes
the first African American to serve on the board of directors of Commonwealth Edison.David Hernandez self-publishes his first book Despertando: wake up (50 cents). It is also the first poetry collection published by a Chicago Latino. Chicago records its wettest year on record, 46.09" of precipitation. Rich Melman and partner from Lettuce Entertain You open
their first restaurant, R.J. Grunts, in Lincoln Park where they create the first salad bar ever documented. The Chicago Bears move to Soldier Field after having played at Wrigley
Field the 50 previous seasons
are elected to the city council for the first time.Jesse Jackson founds Operation PUSH (People United to Save (Serve, a later alternate) Humanity).William Ferris and his partner, John Vorrasi, found the
William Ferris Chorale. 541 S. Wabash Ave. becomes home to Weir Harold’s, an adult bookstore, a massage parlor, and
more. The city shut down
the store in 1975.
Shale Baskin (1927-2012) opens his first men's clothing store in the new Woodfield Mall calling it
Mark Shale, using his first
name and his brother's, and spent months on its design and layout
perfecting his version of visual merchandising.
1972Duck Variations by David Mamet is the first in
a series of plays by the Chicago playwright to beproduced in Chicago and then New York. Richard Nickel, one of the great American architectural photographers, dies while photographing
the demolition of
the Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan Chicago Stock Exchange Building. Mike Royko, Chicago Daily News daily columnist, wins a Pulitzer Prize.Jean Allard is the first woman partner, Sonnenschein, Nath
& Rosenthal. Singer/song
writer Steve Goodman, is mostly remembers as author of Arlo Guthrie’s 1972 hit, The City of New Orleans, a contemporary train
moves from New York to Chicago and founds US Studio with a group of friends.Buddy Guy opens the Checkerboard Lounge at 423 E. 43rd Street in Bronzeville.
It quickly becomes
the place to see and hear such greats as B.B. King, Magic Slim, Howlin' Wolf, Junior Wells, Chuck Berry, Eric Clapton, the Rolling Stones.Sue Gin opens Cafe Bernard, a French restaurant, on North
Halsted Street. William
Walker paints the All of Mankind mural on the front of the Strangers Home Missionary Baptist Church, 617 W. Evergreen. When construction is completed at 1,136 feet (346 meters),
the Standard Oil Building (since 2001, known as the Aon Center) is
Chicago's tallest building and the world's tallest building clad in marble. In July, Rev. Jesse Jackson's Operation PUSH purchases former Temple K.A.M., 930 E. 50th Street.Dawn Clark Netsch is elected to the state Senate, defeating
a Democratic machine candidate.Betty and Bob Sanders host a mid-day mix of news and information talk on WBBM-AM.Chuck Renslow and Dom Orejudos open Man’s Country
Baths, a gay bathhouse.Henry
Darger moves into a nursing home and his landlords, Nathan and Kiyoko Lerner discover his art.
Howlin' Wolf receives an honorary doctorate
from Columbia College, Chicago.The Dominick's at 6009 N. Broadway is open 24-hours.On December 8, a Boeing 737, United Flight 553 en route from Washington D.C. to Chicago's Midway Airport crashes into 3722 W. 70th Place killing
two residents and 45 passengers and crew.
1973 On May 3, a crane hoists the final beam, a 2,500-pound white beam carrying
12,000 signatures, including
that of then-Mayor Richard J. Daley, from the street to the top of the Sears Tower. At 1,468 feet, 110 stories, the Sears Tower is declared the
tallest building in the world, a title it
holds until 1996 when the Petronis Towers open in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Terry Savage is the first woman member of the Chicago Board
of Options Exchange.Robert
Williams and friends open Chciago's first after-hours juice bar in a commercial space at 116 S. Clinton Avenue.The building burns down and US Studio
moves to 1400 S. Michigan Avenue.
Betsy Plank, the "mother" of public relations,
is elected the first female president of the Public
Relations Society of America. She is also the first woman to be elected president of the Publicity
Club of Chicago.
The Magic Lantern Society
receives an $8,000 NEA grant to become the Film Center under the wing
of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.Johnson Publishing launches Fashion Fair, a prestige brand
of cosmetics designed for African-Americans.Jim Croce's Bad, Bad Leroy Brown, become a number one pop hit in July. Both Jim Croce
and Leroy Brown
are regulars at Burwood Tap, 724 W. WrightwoodAlyce Marie-Therese Hamm (born 1930) dresses
Miss USA, Amanda Jones. Chicago Filmmakers is founded.Pete Special and Larry "Big Twist" Nolan form Big Twist &
the Mellow Fellows. It is said that John Belushi modeled his Blues Brothers band in part on Big Twist & the Mellow Fellows. The John Hancock Center apartments are converted to Condominiums.
McDonald adds the
Quarter Pounder to its menu. Lynn Hauldren, The Empire Carpet Guy, creates his TV ad character and a lasting impression of
a phone number: "5-8-8, 2-300, Empire!" with
his jingle. Hauldren also sang with the a capella group The Fabulous 40s.George Allen Jordan, an elder at Christian Tabernacle Church writes Jesus Can Work It Out
and records the first version in 1974 with the Christian Tabernacle Concert Choir.Motorola's Martin Cooper shares U.S. Patent No. 3,906,166, filed October
17, with several others for a Radio Telephone System that is developed by Motorola into the mobile phone.Maria Tallchief becomes director of the Chicago
Lyric Opera Ballet.Lea Wagner becomes one of the first women to officiate in the USA Volleyball Nationals.Chef Jean Banchet opens Le Francais in Wheeling. It quickly becomes an
international dining location.
Dick Locher, Pulitzer Prize winning editorial cartoonist becomes
staff cartoonist of the Chicago Tribune.
The Old Wicker Park Committee, a neighborhood preservation
group, forms to lobby for national
and local historic designation. Irna Phillips dies 22 December. She is credited with creating Guiding Light, the longest running soap opera in TV history, 1952-2009. She also created,
among others, with Another World (1964-1999), As the World Turns (1956-ongoing), Days of our Lives (1965-ongoing).Chicago records 864 people killed this year.
1974Marc Chagall’s outdoor mosaic is unveiled at First National Plaza.
Saul Bellow wins
a Pulitzer Prize. Larry
Edward’s Biograph Theater programs art-house movies for the first time.Phyllis Apelbaum is the first woman to obtain an Illinois Commerce Commission
license to operate a
Proctor is named Chicago Arvertising Woman of the Year by the Woman's Advertising Club. The Rev. Johnnie Colemaon establishes her own denomination,
the Universal Foundation for Better Living, which has 20,000 members across the country. By 2000 the church has a 100 acres campus at 119th street and Ashland Avenue.
Today is the first of the city’s “big four” newspaper to stop publication.David Mamet's play Sexual Perversion in Chicago
Transportation Act is signed into law. By a slim margin, voters approve creation of the Regional Transportation Authority, with taxing powers.
Chicago plurality overcomes widespread opposition to RTA in suburbs.Kenneth H. Richardt organizes the Railroad Day celebration in West Chicago.John Mulvany founds The Museum of Contemporary Photogrpahy(MoCP)
at Columbia Collegewith
the restriction that works be by Americans only and no photograph be from before 1959.Minnie Riperton's single, Lovin' You becomes a
national success. It had been on her 1973 gold album, Perfect Angel. As a teen Minnie Riperton sings lead vocal with the Germs,
a Chicago based girl
group. She sings back-up for various established artists while at Chess Records and sings lead for the Chicago based funky rock soul group Rotary
Connection. Lyric Opera Center for American Artists opens.Columbia College is fully accredited.
WBMX’s La Donna Tittle is the number
one midday DJ in Chicago.Chicago records 970 people killed this year.
1975David Mamet’s American Buffalo opens. Facets Multi-Media founded.About 10,000 Native Americans live in Chicago.The Chicago Board of Trade begins trading U.S. Treasury futures contracts.Little Jim's is the first gay bar to open on Halsted, corner
of Cornelia. Under the leadership of Nicholas Rudall, Court Theater turns pro.In December, Bill Veeck saves the White Sox from moving to Seattle by
organizing investors to keep the team in Chicago.Byron Kouris and Michael Payne open Byron's Hot Dogs at 1017 W. Irving Park Road.Joan Beck is the first woman Op-Ed columnist for the Chicago
(1939-2019), a visionary developer who as chairman and chief executive officer of Urban Investment and Development Company, develops the verticasal mixed-use
Water Tower Place. .Elijah Muhammad, Nation of Islam leader, dies and is buried at Mount Glenwood Memory Gardens, Glenwood.Chicago, a programing guide for WFMT changes its
name to Chicago Magazine. Allen Kelson is editor.Roger Ebert is awarded a Pulitzer Prize for criticism, the first ever awarded for film criticism.Eliot Wald, a producer at WTTW-Ch.11, Thea Flaum executive producer, pairs Roger Ebert and
Gene Siskel on a television show about movies called Opening at a Theatre Near You.
Japanese Emperor Hirohito and his wife visit Chicago on
October 7.The Chicago
area experiences one of its greatest changes in weather during a Thanksgiving weekend. Heavy snow combined with lightning and thunder Wednesday
evening, grinding travel to a halt and leaving 8" of snow on the ground Thanksgiving Day. Two days later the snow is gone as temperatures rise into the 60s. The mild air brings strong thunderstorms
and heavy rain.
1976Mayor Richard J. Daley suffers a heart attack and dies. Saul Bellow receives the Nobel Prize for literature.A flash fire and smoke kill 23 residents of the Wincrest Nursing Home
on January 30.To
commemorate the U.S. Bicentennial, Chicago's Fourth of July fireworks are held on the fourth,a day traditionally reserved for the American Legion veteran's
artist, Larry Cuba spends several months in the University of Illinois at Chicago Electronic Visualization Laboratory using its computer to create a
computer model of the Death Star that is used in the Rebel Alliance briefing room scene in the 1977 "Star Wars" film.Illinois
Service Federal Savings and Loan Association is led by Louis K. Quarels Lawson, the first black woman to head a savings and loan institution. Dr.
Rita Simo, a Julliard-Trained classical pianist, founds People's Music School to offer free group classes and private lessons to children and adults,regardless of their financial resources.National Tea phases out its 160 Chicago stores, selling
55 to A&P.Jeff
Fort, leader of the Black P. Stone Nation, is released from prison and announces that he has converted to Islam. He moves to Milwaukee.Ravinia’s sculpture collection is inaugurated by
a gift of "Music for A While" from Trustee Richard Hunt, an internationally acclaimed Chicago sculptor. Roberta Lieberman of the Zolla-Lieberman Gallery initiates
the move into the loft district, well west
of Michigan Avenue. Other galleries quickly follow.
Ed Hoy's Creative Craftsman
gift shop in Naperville morfs into the third-largest stained glass supplier
in the Midwest.
Harvard Business School calls Barbara Proctor
"the first woman in the United States to open an agency
specializing in advertising to the black community."
Proctor and Gardner is dubbed
the first black-owned ad agency in the nation. Botti Studio of Architectural Arts moves from Chicago to Evanston. Gordon A. Sinclair opens his namesake restaurant Gordon
(closes 1999). Adapting
the idea of William John Bauer, The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District begins construction on the $3 billion Deep Tunnel and Reservoir
project. The completion of the 109.4 mile underground system is scheduled for 2007. For 43 days, starting 28 December, Chicago experiences its longest streak of days below 32º.
1977Motorola Company begins field tests of its experimental radiotelephone, today known as a
cell-phone or handy.Because of snow, Ward Christiansen couldn't get to work
on January 27, so he called his friend Randy Suess and began working on the first Bulletin Board System, BBS, which allowed users to post messages or share computer codes - via modem.Esther R. Rothstein becomes the first woman president of
the Chicago Bar Association. Hubbard Street Dance Chicago (HSDC) is founded by Lou Conte, artistic director until his
retirement in 2000. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra performs the world premiere
of Sir Michael Tippett's Fourth
Symphony, a CSO commission, under Sir George Solti.The Chicago Beer Society is founded as a nonprofit educational
association dedicated to the
appreciation of beer.WLUP-FM 97.9, "The Loop," is launched and quickly becomes the nexus of rock music and irreverent radio.Frankie Knuckles takes a job at the Warehouse (formerly
the Bowery). Here Knuckels soon develops a sound that becomes known
as house music, a rawer brand of 70s disco that would go
on to influence
dance music around the world. “We
created our own thing in Chicago, because we did it for ourselves.” Knuckles said. The Warehouse closes
Founded in 1847 in Poughkeepsie, NY, Smith Brothers cough drops is acquired by Chicago-based
a play written by members of Organic Theatre Company, from an idea by Joe
Mantegna, becomes a 2002 made-for-TV-movie.
Carole Kamin Bellows becomes
the first female president of the Illinois Bar Association.
After a school board member took issue with nudity in Maurice Sendak's
picture book In the Night
Kitchen, it was removed from the library of Pennoyer Elementary School in Norridge.
by Don Baum, a selection from Henry Darger's In the Realm of the Unreal is first shown
at the Hyde
Park Art Center. Darger's work is quickly acclaimed internationally. Some 4,200 runners participate in Chicago first marathon, named the Mayor Daley Marathon. Three people were sent to the hospital
with powder burn when the starter's cannon misfired.
1978 Bally Manufacturing Co. creates a new industry with the introduction of
Space Invaders followed
by Pac-Man in 1980. With the headline, "So Long Chicago," The Chicago Daily News suspends publication on March 4.
The Hubbard Street Dance Company gives its
first public performance at noon, July 7, before a
small audience in the theater of the Chicago Public Library (now the Chicago Cultural Center). Ann C. Marcou and Mimi Kaplan found Y-Me. Center for New Television is founded.Scott Chisholm, owner of Andy's, starts Jazz at Five.
It becomes popular.Chicago
Jazz Festival is held on Labor Day. It is the culmination of a festival memorializing Duke Ellington in 1974, another memorializing John Coltrane
in 1978, and a festival organized by the Jazz Institute of Chicago.Devereux Bowly, Jr., writes The Poorhouse: Subsidized Housing in Chicago, 1895-1976 (Southern Illinois University Press). It quickly becomes a landmark
publication on the subject.
Jack Roche, of Burr Ridge, is man in the first Metamucil ad. McDonald’s 25 billionth hamburger is served. Rich Uchwat opens Zanies, a stand-up comedy club, on Wells
forms the all-girl punk band DA! Marilyn Miglin introduces her first fragrance, Pheromone.Diablo Cody is born Brook Busey-Maurio in Lemont on June 14. Crain’s Chicago Business newspaper is founded.Jeff Fort moves from Milwaukee to Chicago and changes the
name of his gang, the Black P Stone Rangers, to El Rukin ("the foundation" in Arabic). The gang is also known as Circle Seven El Rukin Moorish Temple of America and the Moorish Science Temple,
El Rukin tribe.Wax
Trax is founded by Jim Nash and Dannie Flesher on Lincoln Avenue, a couple of doors down
from the old Biograph Theater. Instantly it's the coolest
place to hang out.Chicagoan
Harold Ramis writes his first screenplay, National Lampoon's Animal House that launches John Belushi to movie stardom. Ramis writes several more
screenplays and co-stars in films, too.
Siskel and Ebert's WTTW-Ch.11 show is renamed Sneak
Preview and syndicated on PBS."Twinkie defense" is coined when an attorney for the suspect
in a double murder in San Francisco claims his client's junk food consumption is partly the blame.Gus Giordano edits Anthology of American Jazz Dance, the first
book on this American dance form.Jerry Manos (1941-2012) is one of the first vendors to sell peanuts outside Wrigley Field. For 100 days, starting 26 November, Chicago experiences
its longest streak of days with snow cover, resulting in Chicago's most snowy winter with 89.7" recorded.
More than 90% of Lake Michigan is ice covered.
1979On January 14, Chicago experiences its greatest snow depth
ever, 29". Hair Trigger, an undergraduate literary magazine published by
the students of Columbia College,
wins first prize for undergraduate literature magazines from the coordinating Council of Literary Magazines.Rob Hecko and Bill Gillmore open B.L.U.E.S. in April. The venue features
blues every night, seven days a week, 365 days a year. Libby Adler Mages
co-produces John R. Powers’ iconic Do Black Patent Leather Shoes Really Reflect Up?
at the Forum Theater in Summit. Styx, formed in Chicago in 1963, is named in a Gallup Poll, the most popular rock band among
American fans aged 13 to 18.George Hendry and Pat Coakley start a parade of childre,
later called The Wee Folks of Washtenaw & Talman Parade, aka the South Side Irish Parade. On Disco Demolition Night, July 12, 80,000 people showed
up at Comiskey Park to watch their vinyl burn.
Le Bastille, 21 W. Superior, opens as the city's first wine bar.Larry Acciari, Eric Larson, and Suzanne Shelton open Neo
on July 25, replacing a disco called "Hoots." With 82% of the votes cast, Democrat Jane Byrne
(born Margaret Jane Burke, May 24, 1933) is elected the city's first female mayor. She defeats Republican candidate Wallace Johnson.
The Loop, a radio station,
scored its highest ratings in the summer with a 7.3 share that placed it
third among all stations.First National Bank of Chicago launches Cash Station, ATMs.Gloria Jean and Ed Kvetko open their first Gloria Jean's
Coffees in north suburban Long Grove. Pope John Paul II visits Chicago. Celebrates mass in Grant Park.Philip Johnson is the first Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.International Mister Leather (IML), an international conference
and contest of leathermen is organized out of the 1970s "Mr. Gold Coast" bar contest held at Chicago's Gold Coast leather bar, owned by Chuck Renslow and his partner Dom Orejudos.Harry Kempf and his brother Guenther organize the first
Oktoberfest in Lincoln Square. The first one was called "German-American Fest."The National Restaurant Association relocates
from Chicago to Washington D.C. Its annual Restaurant Show remains in Chicago. Wicker Park receives national historic designation, which qualifies homeowners
for low-interest loans
and grants. Reinvestment begins in many of the area's historic mansions.The Donohue Building (711 S. Dearborn St.) is the first of the city's
factory lofts to undergo conversion into a residential condominium.
1980Since January 17, the city’s official temperature is measured at
O’Hare International Airport.In May, Chicago stages its first International Art Exposition at Navy Pier. John Denver opens Poplar Creek Music Theatre in Hoffman
Estates on June 6. Who Chicago? a major art exhibit of Chicago Imagists, opens in London.On March 12, a Chicago jury finds John Wayne Gacy, Jr. guilty of the murder
of 33 men and boys. The
film, Blues Brothers is released. Doris Christopher founds The Pampered Chef, a kitchen tools direct sales company.Clarence R. McLean and Roy Wilkes patent a noise suppressor
for commercial use.Luis
Barragán is the Pritzker Architecture
Hartstein adds two new campuses to Oakton Community College, one in Des Plains and another in Skokie.Maria Tallchief, her sister, Marjorie and Maria's husband, Buzz Paschen found Chicago City Ballet.Mayor Jane Byrne launches Taste of Chicago on North Michigan
magazine declares Chef Jean Banchet's Le Francais "America's Best Restaurant." William “Les” Brown starts The Chicago Coalition
for the Homeless.Official
census drops city's population below 3 million: Hispanic share rises to 26 pecent.Chicago's firefighters strike for first time.Larry Jordan, a teacher in the Chicgo Public School system,
with the help of Essee Kupcinet, Evelyn Glieberman and others, founds and opens the Chicago Academy of the Arts in September.Paul H. Stepan (1943-) volunteers to fund raise for Richard
M. Daley's first run for state's attorney.City allows women to serve as rank-and-file firefighters.Judith Baar Topinka wins her first public office to Illinois House of Representatives. Pen collectors start their own convention, The Chicago
Pen Show. Ambria
(French) restaurant opens (closes 2007).
1981Drehobl Brothers Art Glass Co. fabricate and install the "Twelve
Tribes of Israel" windows designed
by Archie Rand for Anshe Emet Synagogue.Joan Baratta is the first woman to becomes senior vice president and group executive, Harris Bank.
25, dressed as Spiderman on May 25, is arrested after scaling the 110 story Sears Tower in 7 1/2 hours. On Veterans Day, Dan Goodwin climbs the John Hancock Center for the purpose
of calling attention to the inability to rescue people trapped in the upper floors of skyscrapers.Chicago Magazine introduces the Nelson Algren
Award, a short story contest. William Wrigley announces the sale of the Cubs and Wrigley Field to the Tribune Co. for $20.5 million.Administrative assistant Ardis Krainik succeeds her boss,
Carol Fox, deposed Lyric Opera of Chicago co-founder, as general manager of the company. Within one season the Krainik led team rescue the
company from bankruptcy.
Foley becomes the play-by-play for the Blackhawks.
Rosamond Campbell founds the Dulcimer Society of Northern Illinois.
Chicago City Day School is founded.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange
(CME) introduces Eurodollar futures.
On March 14, a fire in the Royal Beach Apartment Hotel kills 19 residents.
The National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) permanently moors a buoy in Lake
Michigan about 50 miles east-southeast to archive the lake
Styx record an album entitled Paradise Theatre at Pumpkin Studios in
Oak Lawn and release it
January 18, 1981. It becomes Triple platinum, Billboard
#1 hit album.
Walgreens pharmacy departments are connected via satellite, letting customers refill prescriptions
Chicagoan and Lake Michigan open water swimmer, Jon Erikson, son of Ted Erikson, becomes the
first person to swim the
English Channel three times nonstop.
The Cardinal Sins, a book full of scandal, intrigue, violence and sex is published by
Rev. Andrew Greeley.
James Stirling is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.
The first 21 MacArthur Foundation fellowships are announced
Bill Veeck sells the White Sox to Jerry Reinsdorf and Eddie Einhorn. After discovering punk rock at a Ramones show, Al Jourgensen
moves to Chicago and forms Ministry.Bill Granger, Chicago Sun-Times journalist, wins the Edgar Award from the Mystery Writers of America for his 1980 book, Public Murders. Independent record label Touch and Go is founded in Chicago
by Dave Simson and Corey Rusk.Dorothy Fuller organizes "Chicago Is...," the first promotion of Chicago's fashion designers.Dan Edelman's PR firm introduces the Butterball Turkey
Talk-Line, a free customer hot line, the first of its kind. It fields 100,000 calls a year.
Touch & Go has a reputation for releasing adventurous
noise rock by the likes of the Butthole Surfers, Big Black and the Jesus Lizards. Bob Zajdel, the Victory Auto Wreckers guy, starts his one-ad career.
1982Bluesman Willie Dixon and his daughter, Shirli Dixon-Nelson
launch the Blues Heaven Foundation
to support budding blues artists. In 1997, the Foundation moves into the former Chess Records
offices, 2120 S. Michigan
Kingston Mines moves to Halsted Street.
Fred Anderson, a Sun Ra band member, opens the Velvet Lounge, named not for a fabric, but for
the sound of the owner's
Chicago's schools are closed in the wake of a record-breaking cold the previous day, January 10,
when the mercury dropped
to 26º below zero. At 11 am on January 11, the tempoerature
zero for the first time in two days . Steve Albini, an independent-rock renaissance man, forms Big Black, a hard core band of
unconventional racket.Tom Verhey opens Pops for Champagne in March in a former
grocery store redesigned by John Nelson.Frankie Knuckles begins to play at the Riverside Club, which becomes the Powerhouse in 1983. Vince Lawrence starts the group Z-Factor and records "(I
Like To Do It In) Fast Cars," released by Mitchbal Records.
Driehaus Capital Management LLC is founded by Richard H. Driehaus as an independent boutique investment adviser.Ken Harrelson joins the White Sox as its radio voice. He
becomes the full-time voice in 1990.The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) introduces the first options on futures contract and completes a 23-story annex to its original building.
Four blocks of Evergreen Avenue in Bucktown
are designated Nelson Algren Avenue to
commemorate the writers living and working here from 1959-1975.Kevin Roche is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate..Siskel and Ebert sign with Tribune Entertainment and rename
their show, At the Movies.Chicago bans handguns (the law is overturned in 2010).A&P closes the last of its Chicago stores. Yoshi’s Café (chef Yoshi Katsumara and wife Nobuko) opens
on North Halsted and Aldine, in Lakeview.
On Christmas day the temperature hits 64º and Chicago receives 0.47" of rain, contributing
to the city's rainiest
December totaling 8.56".
1983Harold Washington becomes Chicago's first black mayor.
Eleventh Dream Day, an
alternative band of wide influence, is formed by Janet Beveridge Bean and Rick Rizzo.Lois Weisberg is named director of the Office of Special Events. She holds that position until 1987. Chicago International Children’s Film Festival is
starts Chocolate Artistry, a chocolate consulting firm. She also published a cookbook with the same name.Sue Gin launches Flying Food Group with a single catering
kitchen at Midway Airport and one airline customer - Midway Airlines.Elynne Chaplik Aleskow becomes the first woman television manager in the US when she founds WYCC-TV, CHannel 20. The Daley Plaza skating rink opens.Gam pong go wings, better know as spicy Asian wings, now
a Korean-Chinese-American eating sensation, were invented by Hsing-Tseng Kao in his Peking Mandarin Restaurant on Lawrence Avenue and a sweet
was added by Nai Tiao at his nearby Great Sea Restaurant, both in Albany Park. Nai Tiao also added the lollipop handle by pushing all the
down on the bone to form a handle.Frankie Knuckles' remix of "Let No Man Put Asunder" by First Choice is released on Salsoul Records.Robert Williams opens a new club called the Muzic Box in
the former R2 Underground space at 326 N. Lower Michigan.On March 16, fire engulfs the Paxton Hotel on North LaSalle Street, resulting in more than 20 deaths. In March, Fermilab installs the last of 774 superconducting
magnets in an accelerator. NamedTevatron, in July scientists accelerate protons to world-record energy levels. Test marketed at the first Taste of Chicago in 1979, to
see if customers outside Eli's Place for Steak
restaurant would like it, Eli’s Cheesecake Company starts national distribution.
The Center for Black Music Research (CBMR), the only organization of its
kind in the US, is founded
by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. at Columbia College to collect, preserve and disseminate information about
the common roots and parallel histories of black music in all parts of
I.M. Pei is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.
MacDonald's Hamburg University training facility moves to Oak Brook with attendees from more
than 120 countries. The facility can provide simultaneous translation in more than 28 languages.
Steve Stone starts analyzing Cubs and White Sox baseball.
The Richard H. Driehaus
Foundation is established to benefit historic preservation, architectural and
landscape design and conserving open space.
The Foundation also supports the performing and
visual arts and poverty initiatives.
Brittany Heyworth "Brit" Marling is born in Chicago
August 7. She goes on to make co-write, co-produce
and act in
films, Another Earth (2011), Arbitrage (2012), and The East (2012).
In the face of a funding crisis, legislators amend the RTA Act, creating
three service boards,
including the Chicago Transit Authority, Metra commuter rail and Pace suburban bus. The RTA's
primary responsibility becomes
the financial and budget oversight of CTA, Metra and Pace, and
regional transit planning issues. Thirty-nine four-letter, 10-letter and 12-letter expletives
are used by Cubs Manager Lee Elia's in his
three-minute, 448-word tirade against booing fans. This may be a major league record for managers.
its wettest year on record, 49.35" of precipitation. Becky Bush is crowned Miss Chicago. Claudio Abbado, the Chicago Symphony’s principal guest conductor from1982 to 1985, directs
staged version of Alban Berg’s Wozzeck.
The Chicago Coalition for the Homeless host the first national conference on homelessness.
Chicago records its coldest December average
temperature of 14.3°.
1984Journalist John Callaway launches Chicago Tonight on WTTW, which becomes the longest-running
daily local show in American television history before it ends in 1999. On 2 January, Oprah Winfrey takes over as host of WLS-TV, AM Chicago.
David Mamet wins both the Pulitzer Prize
and New York Drama Critic’s Circle Award for his play Glengary Glen Ross. Dr. June Singer helps create the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago. Lee Collins begins his "Disco Madness" broadcast
on WHPK. Farley
"Funkin" Keith releases his first twelve inch record "Funkin With The Drums" on House Records.Chicago hosts its first Blues Fest.Harold Ramis and Dan Aykroyd co-write and, with Bill Murray,
co-star in Ghostbusters. Walgreen’s
celebrates the opening of its 1,000th store.Ed Hoy, a stained glass supplier, becomes a wholesaler and produces a 176-page catalog featuring
pattern books, glass, jewels, glass cutters and hot and fused glass supplies. Consumers line up to buy Motorola’s first cellular phone, the DynaTAC
8000X. Affectionately called
“the brick,” it weighs 2 pounds, offers half-hour of talk for every recharging and sells for $3,995. Marc Smith inaugurates a poetry reading series at Chicago jazz club, Get Me High Lounge. It quickly
develops into the
a financial-data firm, is founded by Joe Mansueto from his one-bedroom Chicago apartment. The name Morningstar is taken from the last sentence
in Walden, a book by Henry David Thoreau, "the sun is but a morning star."
The City of Chicago ends its Police Department Film Review Section, a
film censorship board.Judith
Baar Topinka wins election to Illinois Senate.Block 37 is razed resulting in 2.85 empty acres along State Street.Richard Meier is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.Steve Jones, breaks the world record with 2:08:05 in the
Kroc, founder of McDonald's dies.Chester Novell Turner and Shirley L. Jones write, produce, direct and act in Black Devil Doll from Hell,
a Chicago horror
film shot on VHS tape on Chicago's South and West Sides. It is self-distributed to video rental stores.Mike Wittkowski wins the Illinois Lotto $40 million jackpot
with the numbers 2-3-10-26-30-43. It's the single largest lottery prize in the U.S. history. The Artful Dodger, a legendary tavern, opens in Bucktown – closes
in 2005.CTA extends
train service to O'Hare.Sixteen Candles is filmed in Skokie,Highland Park and other locations on the North Shore.
With Spiaggia, Tony Mantuano introduces
Northern Italian cuisine to Chicago.In November, Ruth and her husband Leonard Horwich donate the 29-foot high Jean Dubuffet sculpture Monument with a Standing Beast, in front of the
December 8, Captain Kangaroo, with Bob Keeshan, signs off the air. It had been the longest-running nationally broadcast children's show of
Field sells the Sun-Times to Rupert Murdoch and changes Chicago journalism for ever.
1985On January 20, Chicago records its lowest temperature on
record, -27° at O'Hare.Helmut Jahn’s State of Illinois Center (now Thompson Center) opens.
Joe Sedelmaier, a Chicago ad film producer,
contributes the “Where’s the Beef” TV spot for Wendy’s.Fermilab achieves
the first collisions of protons. Jeff McCourt founds Windy City Times, one of the most successful and influential gay newspapers
in the US.
The Steans Institute for Young Artists is
Ravinia’s professional studies program for young artists,
and is one of the world’s most sought-after summer study programs.
hosts its first Gospel Fest.
With Don Cornelius as its host until 1993, Soul Train is syndicated by Tribune Entertainment
International, its subsidiary labels, and Trax Records are two of the main sources locally and
to the world for the House Music sound of Chciago.
Chip E releases the seminal
"Jack Trax EP" to city-wide acclaim, which launches him to startdom.
Studs Terkel's The Good War wins a
Serving homeless women, Deborah's Place opens.
Al Piemonte, of the Melrose Park Ford dealership, as TV auto pitchman,
puts the focus on promises
of best price and best selection.
Hans Hollein is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.
Blanche Artis Lewis founds
Opera Factory. Opera Factory presents the American premier of Jose
Serrano's Los de Aragon and Amadeo Vives' Bohemios. Arun Sampanthavivat opens his namesake restaurant, Arun’s, to quick acclaim for the most
elegant Thai eating
in the US. Café
Ba-Ba-Reeba, Spanish tapas-style by Richard Melman, opens in Lincoln Park.The Wabash Street bridge over the Chicago River is named The Irv Kupcinet
Bridge by unanimous approval
of the City Council on December 23.
1986The Chicago Bears win the Super Bowl (NFL Championship).On April 20, the Bulls' Michael Jordan scones 63 points against the Boston Celtics. The Bulls loose, 135-131. In a record smashing, two-hour live television special,
Geraldo Rivera entered Al Capone's alleged
vault, fires a submachine gun, detonates dynamite, sings Chicago, and finds a few empty bottles.
Lifelong Chicagoan, Larry Heinemann
wins critical applause with his novel PAC’s Story.Zeleke Gessesse opens the Wild Hare. Instantly it becomes the Midwest's reggae music center.
first syndicated show airs, September 8. The first 20 women firefighters join the Chicago Fire Department.Russ Tutterow is named artistic director of Chicago Dramatists.Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert join Buena Vista Television,
a division of The Walt Disney Co. and change the name of their show to Siskel & Ebert at the Movies. The
two are the most powerful film critics in the world.Chester Novell Turner writes, produces, and directs Tales from the Quadead Zone, a Chicago
horror film shot
on VHS tape on Chicago's South and West Sides. It is self-distributed to video rental stores. Joanie Pallatto and Bradley Parker-Sparrow
release their first CD, Whisper Not on their Southport record label.Gottfried
Bõhm is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.Rolling
Rock Beer is introduced to Chicago by Hugh Haller of Local Option, a Lincoln Park tavern.
Theater reopens.The Uptown Poetry Slam starts at the Green Mill Lounge.
Charles H. Kerr Company,
a socialist publishing house, celebrates its 100th anniversary.Lake Shore Drive's S-curve is straightened.Jean Joho opens Everest, a restaurant. It immediately becomes a bastion
of haute French taste.
1987Raya Dunayevskaya dies in Chicago. Dunayevskaya arrived in Chicago in the 1920s after having
served for two
years as Trotsky’s secretary in Mexico. She wrote the
first English translation of Marx’s 1844 manuscripts and developed a critique of the totalitarian tendencies of Marxist philosophy know as Marxist humanism. David Hernandez is commissioned to write a poem commemorating the city’s 150th anniversary.Poetry moves into a rent-free nook in the Newberry
blessing of Mayor Harold Washington, Dorothy Fuller founds the Apparel Industry Board. Harold Washington, Chicago's first black mayor, dies in
office of a heart attack.
Charlie Trotter opens a fine dining namesake restaurant
in a former home on Armitage Avenue
that becomes a five-star destination restaurant for diners from around the world.Chicago City Ballet closes.Roscoe's is the first LGBT bar on Halsted to have floor
to ceiling windows open to the street.Jim Corno makes Sports Vision the first 24/7 regional operation in the country.Kenzo Tange is the Pritzker
Architecture Prize Laureate.
Using maps and a
research team from the Newberry Library, Helen Hornbeck Tanner publishesAtlas of Great Lake Indian History. The epic work documents the
displacement of Indian
communities from 1640 to 1871, due to disease, destruction of their culture by white settlers
and duplicity.Paul Freeman founds the Chicago Sinfonietta..Larry Lujack's final WLS broadcast takes place on August
a renowned chocolate specialist, is voted best cooking instructor by her peers in a Chicago Tribune poll, and she is among the first to lead chocolate
tours of Mexico. Annoyance
Theatre, formerly Metaform, is founded by Mick Napier and opens with Splatter Theatre in Cabaret Metro. On October 19, Starbucks opens its first store outside
Seattle at 111 W. Jackson. Chicago born leggy dance diva, Jody Watley is awarded Best New Artist Grammy for her slamming
dance-pop solo debut, Looking for a New Love and
Don’t You Want Me. The Mexican Fine Arts Museum opens in Pilsen.The Museum of Broadcast Communications opens. Rick Bayless opens Frontera Grill and changes the way we think of tacos.A reborn Sieben's becomes Chicago's first brewpub.
1988Lights on 33 feet high towers are installed by Osborn Engineering
of Cleveland, Ohio, and the first Cubs home night game is played at Wrigley Field. Big Monster Toys is founded as a direct descendent of Marvin Glass & Associates, one of the
toy-designers of the 1950s and 60s. Lookingglass Theatre Company is formed. Its first production
is Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found
Factory performs the world premier of The Magic Cup with music by Chicago composer
the Rev. Edward J. McKenna and libretto by the Rev. Andrew Greeley, based
on Greeley's novel.Goose Island Brew Pub opens.Oscar Niemeyer and Gordon
Bunshaft are the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureates.On June 20, O'Hare recorded its first ever over 100º with 104º. On June 25, temperatures reached 105° by the lake, 104° at Midway Airport and 103°
at O’Hare. The
B1 bomber makes its debut as 1.5 million people attend Chicago’s Air and Water Show.
1989Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, is elected mayor.Lois Weisberg is named commissioner of Cultural Affairs.Chris and Mike Schuba open Schubas Tavern in a former Schlitz
Brewery owned "ied house." Paul H. Stepan organizes the fundraising campaign for Daley's successful mayoral race. In less than five months he raises a staggering $6.5 million from lawyers,
developers and businessmen.A record 30.98" barometric pressure is recorded on February 16.
Nine art galleries perish April 15, in a fire that leveled nearly an entire block of
historic buildings in
the River North gallery district.Alyce Marie-Therese Hamm (born 1930) dresses Miss France, Peggy Zlotkowski.
James Ginsburg founds
Cedille Records, a for-profit classical music recording company featuring Chicago area musicians. It is the first Chicago-based record label to do so. Chicago records .5 inches of snow on May 6.On May 7, Mayor Richard M. Daley and Gov. James Thompson help break ground for the new Comiskey Park.
General Director Ardis Krainik sacks tenor
Luciano Pavarotti for canceling 26 of his 41 scheduled
appearances with her Lyric Opera of Chicago within nine years. Billy Corgan forms The Smashing Pumpkins in Chicago.
With less than $1,000 in hand, Tony Brummel
launches Victory, a highly successful independent
record label. Around the Coyote forms under the direction of Frenchman Jim Happy-Delpech.Frank Gehry is the Pritzker Architecture
Prize Laureate.Chicago Festival Ballet, aka Von Heidecke's Chicago Festival
Ballet is founded.Sylvester "Syl" Lulinski is voted into the American Cribbage Congress, ACC, Hall of Fame.River North Chicago Dance Company is founded.From October 18 to 20, Chicago officially records 6.3"
of snow, though warm ground and above-freezing temperatures limit accumulation to 1-2".Ben Hollis and WTTW-Ch.11 producer John Davies create Wild Chicago.
At the time, there is nothing like it on TV. It is an immediate hit.
Rich Bayless opens Topolobampo, a few tables inside his Frontera Grill restaurant, and instantly
introduces the white-tablecloth
experience to Mexican eating.Chicago experiences the least days without measurable snow in a year, 164.
1990Cher opens the World Music Theatre in Tinley Park (now Tweeter Center).
leads the Chicago Symphony in the world premiere of John Corigliano's
Symphony no.1, commissioned for the
The Shelter nightclub opens in March. It is the dominat club for most of the next decade.
School of Ballet is founded in Naperville, Joliet and Chicago.
Aldo Rossi is the
Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate. Rialto's Tap, a legendary gay club in Chicago's Loop, closes. It was known for playing House Music
to its African-American clientele.Stuart Dybek publishes "The Coast of Chicago," a quickly acclaimed collection of short
stories.Suzanne Flandreau establishes The Center for Black Music
Research (CBMR) Library and Archives.
Dawn Clark Netsch defeats Republican Sue Suter for state comptroller.
At 311 S. Wacker architects Kohn Pederson Fox, build the world’s
tallest concrete framed building.
Tortoise, an inventive Chicago music collective
1991The Chicago Bulls, with the help of Michael Jordan, win the National Basketball Association
championship for the first
new Comiskey Park baseball stadium (now known as U.S. Cellular
Field) opens on the South Side.Gallery 37 art programs starts.Holly Agra founds First Lady Cruises. Its main client, the Chicago Architecture Foundation.Jazz Dance World Congress (JDWC) is founded by Gus Giordano.
Neil Funk becomes
the Bulls radio and TV play-by-play man.The supreme funk parlor, Red Dog Nightclub opens. The Music Box, a club, closes.After working in Hong Kong at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Chef Jacquy Pfeiffer moves to Chicago and
opens The French
Pastry School at City Colleges of Chicago with the mission to bring excellence and quality to the pastry industry through hands-on educational
opportunities.Robert Venturi is the
Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.Robert S. Boone founds Young Chicago Authors (YCA).Lindy and Edwin Bergman give the bulk of their modern art
collection, including works by Picasso, Ernst, Magritte, Miro, Dali and Cornell to the Art Institute of Chicago. Corner Bakery Cafe is founded as an offshoot Maggiano's Little Italy.Wicker Park is granted landmark status by the Chicago City
Council, 12 years after it received
national designation.Daniel Barenboim is appointed new music director of the Chicago Symphony. The 101st season opens three weeks late, on October 1, because of a labor
Speck, who murdered eight student nurses in Chicago in 1966, dies in prison on December 5, a day short of his 50th birthday.
In March, Chicago’s climatological
record keeping moves to Meigs Field.The Chicago Bulls win another NBA Championship. Willie Dixon, Chicago Blues legend, born Vicksburg, MS, July 1, 1915,
dies Jan 29, age 76.Iconic
DJ, Ron Hardy, of the Music Box, dies March 2.The Goodman Theater wins a Regional Theater Tony Award.On May 25, Chicago experiences its latest freeze. It is the start of a
very cool summer.Ed
Farmer becomes announcer for the White Sox.Chicago born Mary Ann McMorrow is the first female judge to be elected to the state
Supreme Court.Walgreens opens its first drive-thru pharmacy.Chicago native Curtis Jones produces his first track "Coffee Pot
(It's Time for the Percolator)" as Cajmere on Clubhouse Recods.The world's first inverted roller coaster opens at Six Flags Great America in Gurnee under the name Batman: The Ride.Assault weapons are banned in Chicago.Madusa's closes in June.Alvaro Siza is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.
WKQX-FM hires Carla
Leonardo as its on air personality when it shifts from an adult-contemporary to an alternative rock format.Polk Bros. close their five remaining stores.WSCR, or The Score, an all-sports radio format, begins
broadcasting on the frequency of former WPNT (AM 820).Video
game, Mortal Kombat is created by Ed Boon for Midway (today called NetherRealm).With the rupture of a utility tunnel beneath the Kinzei
Street Bridge on the North Branch of the Chicago River, basements and underground facilities throughout the Loop are flooded with an estimated 250 million US gallons of water.
1993The Beanie Babies' "Squealer the pig" is born
on April 23, followed two days later by "Legs the frog", and "Chocolate the moose" on April 27, in Oakbrook, Illinois.
Rob Miller, Eric Babcock found Bloodshot Records, an independent record label.Fort Sheridan is decommissioned, allowing for redevelopment
of the site. Columbia
College’s Hair Trigger receives the Gold Crown award from the Columbia University Scholastic Press Association.
The Chicago Bulls win their third NBA Championship.
The series of three championships is coined “Three Peat.” The AIA Guide to Chicago Architecture is published.The CTA rail system opens the Orange Line to Midway Airport.Chicago gets its second all-sports radio station when WLUP-AM1000,
once home to pro-labor and Christian programming, changes to WMVP.Mayor Daley launches Chicago's Graffiti Blasters initiative.Fumihiko Maki is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.Josh Squire, a Northwestern University students and bicycle
fanatic, starts Bike Chicago, a cycle rental company.The
International Mister Bootblack Competition is added to the International Mister Leather program.Red Orchid Theatre opens with Jack Gelber's The Connection.
are constructed as part of North Michigan Avenue’s streetscape improvement project with plantings designed by Douglas Hoerr.Midway Airport records the city's wettest year on record,
1994 When Bump N’ Grind hits No.1 on February 19, South Sider R. Kelly affirms that he has become the dominant rhythm and blues performer of the
Planet begins to track the local and international punk scene.John Wayne Gacy is executed May 10, at Stateville Penitentiary, Joliet. Ana Castillo writes her acclaimed book, My Father was
a Toltec. Lee
Godie, the city’s most famous outsider artist, dies. Christian
de Portzamparc is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.
The United Center opens.Tom MacDonald and Janan open Webster's Wine Bar in the former Robert Henry Adams Fine Art gallery.Del Close collaborates with Kim Howard Johnson and Charna
Halpern on his book, Truth in Comedy: The Manual for Improvisation.Chicago hosts the World Cup. Cedille Records, founded by James Ginsburg in 1989, is transformed into a not-for-profit record
label under the
umbrella of The Chicago Classical Recording Foundation.Alyce Marie-Therese Hamm is the recipient of the Designer of the Year Award by the Apparel Industry
Foundation. Kartemquin Films releases Hoop Dreams.
Christoph Eschenbach is named Ravinia’s
music director, a post he holds until 2003.Chicago experiences the most days without measurable snow in one year, 290. 1995
Fermilab sets world record for number of high-energy proton-antiproton
Pier reopens after an extended restoration.The top quark, an elusive subatomic particle, is discovered at Fermilab.Micahel Jordan, in a two-word news release saying simply,
"I'm back, announces, on March 18, his return to the Chicago Bulls after an 893-day retirement.Bettina Richards moves Thrill Jockey Records from New York to Chicago.Tadao Ando is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.Navy Pier opens its 148-foot Ferris Wheel in honor of the
original Wheel at the 1893 World's Fair. On July 13, Chicago hits a sweltering 104º.Mayor Daley assumes authority over city's public schools.Andrew Athens, Greek-American
philanthropist, is elected the founding president of the World Council of Hellenes.Lake Michigan reaches a temperature of 81.3º
at the NOAA buoy on August 13, an official high.Doug Zell and Emily Mange, his wife, found Intelligentsia Coffee in Chicago.Seymoure H. Perskey offers the Society of Architectural
Historians, based in Philadelphia, the James Charnley House, 1365 N. Astor St. They accept and move.Pulitzer Prize winning journalist and Upfront columnist for Chicago
Magazine, Henry Hansen, dies. On October 26, Daniel Barenboim conducts the Chicago Symphony in Shulamit Ran's Pulitzer Prize-winning symphony. Daniel Barenboim and the Chicago
Symphony join with trumpeter Hannibal Lokumbe, a jazz quartet, and African drummers for a concert version of Lokumbe's
Kroch's and Brentano's,
once the largest privately-owned bookstore chain in the US, closes.
1996 The Chicago Bulls win their fourth NBA Championship. On the summer solstice, the Museum of Contemporary Art has a 24-hour preview
of its new building
designed by Berlin architect Josef Paul Kleihaus on the site of the former U.S. NationalGuard Armory at 220 E. Chicago Avenue.Pat Hughes becomes the play-by-play voice for the Cubs.Red Orchid Theatre becomes an Equity Theatre house.Raphael Moneo is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate. Lisel Mueller wins the Pulitzer Prize for poetry with Alive Together.The City closes its last municipal incinerator. Claudia Cassidy, fabled 1940s to 1970s Chicago Tribune
theater, dance and music critic dies.Cardinal Joseph Bernardine of the Chicago Archdiocese dies, November 14, age 68.Chicago's City Council bans the sale of spray paint.In June Chicago countts 90 homicides.Another attempt to revitalize State Street is announced.The CHA is taken over by a federal agency. Chicago starts to demolish its CHA high rises.In August Chicago counts 85 homicides..A storefront home for the Leather Archives and Museum opens.
It quickly outgrows its space.
For a cooling unit
at 400 S. Franklin, Exelon Thermal Technologies builds the world's largest
reinforced cast-in-place ice tank, measuring 110x100x40 feet high.In October Chicago counts 80 homicides.
1997 The Chicago City Council approves a resolution absolving Mrs. O’Leary’s cow of all
blame for the
Great Chicago Fire. Juice,
a 24-year old Chicago MC performs against up-and-coming Detroit rapper Eminem at
Scribblejam, the annual Midwestern hip-hop festival. Juice
wins the battle, but Eminem wins fame.The Chicago Bulls win the NBA Championship, again.Thomas
J. Klutznick Co. develops a full-block retail and hotel complex on North Michigan Ave. that includes the Peninsula Chicago hotel, Tiffany&Co. Banan Republic, Polo Ralph Lauren, American
Girl. Janet Jagan (Rosenberg) is elected president of Guyana. Born in Chicago in 1920, she marries Cheddi Jagan in 1943, who, in 1992, is elected president
of free Guyana.Sverre Fehn is the Pritzker Architecture
Prize Laureate.Roosevelt Road is extended east of Michigan Ave., across the Illinois Central tracks.For $8 million, the Field Museum buys fossils for a T-Rex
Score, talking sports radio, moves to AM 1160, becoming 24-hour. The Chicago Board of Trade completes its 60,000 square-foot trading floor
to house its financial and
100 of Chicago's public schools are placed on academic probation.Orchestra Hall is renovated and on Oct.4, Daniel Barenboim leads the Chicago Symphony in the opening night of the renamed Symphony Center.Eugene Polley and Robert Adler, both of Zenith, share an
Emmy from the National Academy of Television Arts for their contribution to Zenith's introduction of the wireless remote.Studs Terkel retires from WFMT radio after 45 years.Mayor Richard M. Daley officially recognizes Boystown as
Chicago's gay district.The
redevelopment of former Glenview Naval Air Station begins.
Paul Kahan puts Contemporary American food on the map when he opens Blackbird.
1998 Two great Chicago sports announcers die, Harry Caray (1914-1998) and Jack
Brickhouse (1916-1998). The Chicago Police Department names its first female deputy superintendent, Jeanne Clark.
After 35-years in business, The Busy Bee
Restaurant, 1546 North Damen Ave., closes.
The Chicago Bulls win another NBA Championship.Steppenwolf Theatre Company wins a National Medal of the Arts.The Art of Chocolate (Chronicle Books) is written
by Elaine Gonzalez.Renzo Piano is the Pritzker Architecture
Prize Laureate.Ed Hoy (1920-2013), a stained glass supplier, opens a 75,000-square-foot warehouse in Warrenville. His firm, Ed Hoy's International, is one of the largest stained
glass suppliers in the US.The Fire Museum of Greater Chicago acquires a building at 5218 S. Western Ave.Jim Corno helps bring the Cubs to Fox Sports Net, marking
the team's initial venture into cable.Sammy Sosa of the Cubs becomes the 4th player in Major League Baseball history to reach 60-home runs in one season.Apolinar P. Gonzalez and a few friends found the Northern Illinois Tejano
Cultural Society in Aurora. Its function is to promote and preserve the language, culture, traditions, family values and positive contributions of Mexican immigrants from the Southwest.Sue Berry, Donna Kirchman and Bill Davenport open Davenport's,
a cabaret at 1383 N. Milwaukee.
In their first season, the Chicago Fire soccer team wins MLS Cup and U.S. Open Cup.
Bc meson, the last of the quark-antiquark pairs know to
exist are discovered at Fermilab.
1999The Chicago Shakespeare Theater opens at Navy Pier. It is designed by
VOA Associates. Mayor
Daley announces Millennium Park and a bandshell designed by Frank Gehry. Bear's great Walter Payton (1954–1999) dies at age 45.The death of Walter Payton is memorialized with a "34"
in the south-facing windows of the Blue Cross-Blue Shield Building by Chris Gillott, an electrician in the building.Wendella's rush-hour commuter service between Michigan
Avenue and Northwestern Railroad Station is known as RiverBus.Neo of the Matrix film series is named for neo, the bar 2350 N. Clark.Norman Foster is the Pritzker
Architecture Prize Laureate. Khalid Khannouchi sets a world speed record, 2:05.42, in the Chicago Marathon. Daniel Barenboim conducts the world premiere of Pierre
Boulez’s Notations VII for Orchestra, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra commission.The Cubs move nearly half of their games off WGN-TV to Fox Sports Chicago on cable.Walgreens.com is launched, giving consumers the option
to meet their health care needs at home. James Taylor, a singer-songwriter, performs with members of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.The Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum opens in Lincoln Park.Gene Siskel, age 53, dies.Led by Joseph W. Bean, the Leather Archives and Museum
moves into its own permanent building.Cubs slugger Sammy Sosa becomes the first player in Major League Baseball history to reach 60 homers twice.Chicago's City News Bureau closes.Twinkies are placed in the nation's millennium time capsule.Mayor Richard M. Daley and the City of Chicago invite two
people from every country on the globe to Chicago for a New Year's Eve dinner celebrating the new millennium. Three hundred eighty-six people accept and join 1000 Chicagoans for dinner and fireworks at McCormick Place.
2000Smith Museum of Stained Glass Windows opens at Navy Pier. It is estimated
that some 3.5 million
visit the Museum in its first year. The new Goodman Theater opens at the corner of Randolph and Dearborn Streets. It is designed
by the Toronto, Canada based firm of Kuwabara Payne McKenna
Barbara McDonald becomes the Chicago Police Department’s
director of administrative services,
the city’s highest ranking Police Department woman.
Rem Koolhaas is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.
Fermilab's Tevatron is featured
in Dan Brown's novel Angel & Demons, the prequel to The Da
Vinci Code (2003).
The Score, all-sports
radio, lads at AM 670, the former all-news WMAQ.
Dr. Shutsung Liao is named the first director of the University of Chicago's Tang Center for Chinese
Medicine Research. Renowned
tenor Placido Domingo, joined by Daniel Barenboim, performs his first American solo recital. In the 2000 census, German descent ranks number one among
those claiming European heritage.The Chicago Fire wins another U.S. Open Cup.27870 runners finish the Chicago Marathon with an average finish time of 4:21:46.Fanning the international interest in dinosaurs, The Field
Museum unveils Sue, a Tyrannosaurus Rex. The first evidence of the direct observation of a tau neutrino, a neutral subatomic particle, is
made at Fermilab.
2001The Richard H. Driehaus Gallery of Stained Glass opens
at Navy Pier. Amy
Schroeder begins publishing Venus Zine in Chicago.The 1.5 (2.4km), tri-oval Chicagoland Speedway opens in Joliet.Richard H. Driehaus, helped by Skip Grisham, initiates
the Driehaus Awards for Fashion Excellence.Victory Gardens Theater wins the Regional Theatre Tony Award.With a time of 2:18:47, Catherine Ndereba breaks the women's
world's marathon record in Chicago while 28390 runners finish the Chicago Marathon with an average finish time of 4:19:28.Boeing moves its headquarters to Chicago.Jacques Herzog & Pierre de Meuron are the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureates.Kevin Coval founds Louder Than a Bomb in collaboration
with Chicago Youth Authors (YCA).The city establishes a Motor Row Landmark District along South Michigan that includes 55 buildings.Named for a Simpsons character, Fall Out Boys, a pop punk band, is formed in Wilmette. The band consists of vocalist/guitarist Patrick Stump,
bassist Peter Wentz, guitarist Joe Trohman, and drummer Andy Hurley.In October, Brian Posen creates Sketchfest, a venue to showcase the city's besketch
comedy troupes, and provide a venue free of financial burden. Rosamond Campbell, a dulcimer player, writes an instructional book, Playing
Dulcimer in the Chord-Melody Style (Mel Bay Publications). WTTW originates Check, Please, a show about the frantic Chicago
restaurant scene. The show is hosted by Alpana Singh whose opening lines have become famous: "Hi, I'm Alpana Singh, This is the show where regular people from all over Chicago recommend
and review their favorite restaurants. Here's how the show works: Every week we have three guests, each recommends his or her favorite stops, then the other two go check and see what they think."
Lincoln: The Man, a statue by Augustus Saint-Gaudens in Lincoln Park is awarded City of Chicago landmark status on December 12.
The first Sketchfest opens January 2002 and rund for seven weeks. It's a success.
It is renamed: Chicago Sketch Comedy Festival.
It takes 13 days, 12 hours, 16 minutes for Chicagoan
Steve Fossett to circumnavigate the globe solo in a balloon.Eli Lilly pharmaceutical heiress Ruth Lilly endows Poetry magazine with more than $100 million.Brooklyn restaurant owner Christopher Sell introduces the
deep-fried Twinkie, now a staple at county fairs.Glenn
Murcutt is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.The City of Chicago purchases Block 37 for $32,500.000.Judith Baar Topinka becomes the first woman to chair the
Illinois Republican Party.Chicagoan Mary Ann McMorrow is the first female chief justice of the state Supreme Court.The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) IPO, is the first
U.S. exchange to go public.French advertising giant, JCDecaux wins the CTA Bus Shelter with advertising competition. Called Street Furniture, Robert A.M. Stern, an American architect
and Driehaus Prize winner, is selected to design them.With
a time of 2:17:18, Paula Radcliff breaks the women's world's marathon record and sets a course record in Chicago while 31093 runners finish the Chicago
Marathon with an average finish time of 4:19:51.Michael
Polsky, founder and CEO of Invenergy, donates $7million endowment to the University of Chicago's Booth School of Business.
2003The Smith Museum opens its new Victorian and Louis Comfort
Tiffany galleries. Audrey
Niffenegger’s first novel, The Time Traveler’s Wife, is published. It quickly becomes a
New York Times Best Seller and won the Exclusive Books
Boeke Prize and a British Book Award.On April 1, philanthropist Richard H. Driehaus founds the Richard H. Driehaus Museum in the formerSamuel Mayo Nickerson residence, starting a five-year restoration
effort to preserve the structure and its magnificent interiors. It opens to the public in 2008.Twenty-one people are killed on February 17, in a stampede after a pepper
spray is used to break upa fight at the crowded E2 nightclub on the city's Near South Side.Léon Krier of Luxembourg is the first Driehaus Architecture Prize
Chicago's small downtown airport, is shut down by Mayor Richard M. Daley.Jørn Utzon is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.
Bruce and Stephanie
Tharp's design, the Cubby, a coat hook, wins a best-of-the-year award from Interior Design magazine. The Cubby never makes it past
the prototype phase.The
Chicago Fire wins the U.S. Open Cup, again.Chicago city and area garbage collectors go on strike October 1. The strike lasts 9 days.The first Renegade Craft Fair Holiday Market is held in
Slim & the Teardrops win the Blues Music Award for Blues Band of the Year 2003.Intelligentsia Coffee pioneers the direct-trade coffee
model with their DT relationship, ensuring both the quality of the coffee beans and the quality of life conditions for the communities that farm
Poetry Association becomes the Poetry Foundation. It establishes and begins a series of initiatives, including awards for a first book of poetry,
humor in poetry and a Children's Poet Laureate, given to a poet who writes for children. Avec Restaurant opens in the West Loop.
2004July 16, Millennium Park is officially completed and open
to the public.Piet
Oudolf, Dutch master gardener, designs Lurie Garden in Millennium Park, his first creation in the US. Chicago police officers are equipped with Segways to cover
greater distance than on foot. Barack Obama is elected to the U.S. Senate by the largest margin in the history of Illinois.On April 20, over 30 twisters rake northern and central
Illinois and Indiana during the late afternoon and early evening. One tornado hits Utica, IL. killing eight.Board Chair J.B. Pritzker and President Sam Harris persuades
Rick Hirschhaut to become the first executive director of the Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center in Skokie. Days after his death, East-West Tollway is renamed after Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the US.
The tollway passes
just south of his childhood home in Dixon.Demetri Porphyrios of Greece
is the Driehaus Architecture Prize Laureate.After a
fire at its Roscoe Village location, Doug Sohn opens Hot Doug's at 3324 N. California and quickly becomes a Chicago culinary hot dog institution.With the formation of CSN, which the Cubs, White Sox, Bulls
and Blackhawks own jointly with Comcast, Jim Corno makes sure they all work together to develop a network that has high ratings and profits for everyone.Zaha Hadid is the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate.The Dells are inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.Comcast, on October 1, along with Chicago's sports teams,
create Comcast SportsNet Chicago on cable.